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IPME FINAL STUDY GUIDE Ottoman Society, Palestine & Origins of ZionismEuropean Inroads & Communal Tensions ●Ibrahim, son of Mohammad Ali governed Syria, Palestine and parts of Lebanon from 1831-1840, brought Christians to administrative posts, assessed taxes, encouraged European trade and influx of Christian minorities to balance Ottoman demands for Egyptian withdrawal - communal clashes as Europeans prefer Christian Arabs over Muslims. Muslims Revolt against Christians in Damascus in 1860 Jews encourage them ●Hatti Sharif of Gulhane -Edict of Reformation -1839 (Western liberal principles), beginning of Tanzimat (reordering of the society -Hatti Humayun) 1856. But Hatti Sharif also a British design (Stratford De Redcliffe) balancing Russians ●PALESTINE: Pashaliks of Sidon and Damascus (divided into Sanjaks) further divided into Nahiyas Changing Patterns: Trade, Land, Agriculture, & Population●British Ottoman Commercial Convention - 1838, integrate OE to the world economy - Beirut, Jaffa, and Haifa emerge as centers of European imports oJerus becomes an area of attention, European religions ●Ottoman Land Reforms of 1858 and 1867 oTo regularize the land ownership & cultivation throughout the empire oEstablish clear title possession or use of land ●Tax liabilities, increase state revenues LAND IN PALESTINE 1.State land (miri), uncultivated because of security issues 2.Mulk (private property) Large landowners a.Ottomans deprived of land use income or taxes 2.Musha'a (State + Private) cultivated by peasants assuming traditional rights, communal ownership of the tilled land (Frequently in debt, owe back taxes, Damascus authorities - destroying villages, tax) However, peasants reluctant of ownership: two main reasons and consequences Palestinian Notables & Absentee Landowners●Local notables oTax collectors and large landowners ●Sursuq family oGreek Catholics in silk factories & exporting textiles oBought large amounts of land in Galilee & Nazareth oViolated 1858 land law, yet Ottomans in need of revenue ●Major transformation of landholding patterns oPalestinian notables & outsiders oChristians from the coastal areas ●20% of the land in Galilee and 50% in Judea was in the hand of peasants Palestinian Agricultural Productivity●Post Crimean war, better security under Ottomans ●Trade increase ●GAZA becomes an important grain producing region- Russian Exports ●Cotton production explodes to meet European Demand ●Expansion of citrus and orange cultivation ●Production raises because of introduction of novelties
●TOURISM major source of income - Christian Tours circa 1850s ●Agriculture was not nearly as bad as classical Zionists would have you believe Population and Identity●Politics and identities, early 20th century oSelf-identification as familial/ local, Palestinian - educated Palestinians as early as 17th century, Muslim, Arab, Ottoman oPalestine as southern Syria under Arab rule? - is this nationalism? Zionist argument (no Palestinian nation, it emerged only after Zionist encounter) ●