USGS_WetlandResources_NotRequired.pdf - NATIONAL WATER...

This preview shows page 1 out of 444 pages.

Unformatted text preview: NATIONAL WATER SUMMARY ON WETLAND RESOURCES United States Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2425 National Water Summary Series 1983 Hydrologic Events and Issues (U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2250) 1984 Hydrologic Events, Selected Water-Quality Trends, and Ground Water Resources (U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2275) 1985 Hydrologic Events and Surface-Water Resources (U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2300) 1986 Hydrologic Events and Ground-Water Quality (U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2325) 1987 Hydrologic Events and Water Supply and Use (U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2350) 1988 89 Hydrologic Events and Floods and Droughts (U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2375) 1990-91 Hydrologic Events and Stream Water Quality (U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2400) Suggestions and comments on this or any other U.S. Geological Survey publication are most welcome. Remarks should be addressed to: Chief Hydrologist, U.S. Geologocal Survey, 409 National Center, Reston VA 22092 Front Cover: Wetlands along the Homosassa River, at Homosassa, Florida. (Photograph by Judy D. Fretwell, U.S. Geological Survey.) NATIONAL WATER SUMMARY ON WETLAND RESOURCES By U.S. Geological Survey Judy D. Fretweil, John S. Williams, and Phillip J. Redman, Compilers United States Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2425 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BRUCE BABBITT, Secretary U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Gordon P. Eaton, Director- UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1996 For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office Superintendent of Documents, M.S. SSOR Washington, D.C. United States Geological Survey National Water Summary ISBN 0-607-85696-3 20402-9328 Foreword National Water Summary on Wetland Resources is the eighth in a series of reports that describes the conditions, trends, availability, quality, and use of the water resources of the United States. This volume describes an often-overlooked water resource wetlands. It gives a broad overview of wetland resources and includes discussions of the scientific basis for understanding wetland functions and values; legislation that regulates the uses of wetlands; wetland research, inventory, and evaluation; and issues related to the restoration, creation, and recovery of wetlands. In addition, it presents more-specific information types and distribution, hydrologic setting, trends, and conservation on the wetland resources of each State, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and several Pacific islands over which the United States has jurisdiction. Wetlands serve as a transitional environment between water bodies and dry land and represent a significant part of the Nation's natural resources. They contain economically important timber, fuel, and food sources; provide esthetic and recreational opportunities; and influence the quantity, quality, and ecological status of water bodies, which include rivers, aquifers, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries. Wetlands owe their existence, in part, to precipitation, streams, lakes, ground water, and oceans and, in return, perform important functions that affect the quantity and quality of these water resources. Although wetlands are best known for their function as habitat for birds, fish, and other wildlife, their less well known hydrologic and water-quality functions provide such benefits as reducing the severity of flooding and erosion by modifying the flow of water or improving water quality by filtering out contaminants. Public and scientific views of wetlands have changed greatly over time. Only a few decades ago, wetlands were generally considered to be of little or no value. Those who eliminated wetlands through draining or filling were thought of as performing a public service. The role of the wetlands as a breeding ground for disease (primarily malaria) and their inability to be exploited for agricultural production caused them to be viewed as an economic "bad" rather than as a public "good," as they are viewed today. Because of new scientific knowledge, as well as a change in values (as manifested in our Nation's environmental laws), efforts to eliminate wetlands are viewed in a negative light by many. In fact, government and private citizens are making investments in the preservation, remediation, or creation of wetlands. Although we now understand some of the benefits of wetlands and government agencies have established programs to protect them, wetland-protection policies remain a controversial public issue. In keeping with its mission, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has prepared this report with the intent of informing public officials, scientists, and the general public about wetlands. Our purpose is to increase and help improve the understanding of this valuable resource and to provide the scientific information base upon which wise decisions regarding the classification, use, modification, or restoration of wetlands can be made. The hydrologic, biological, and economic consequences of these decisions are substantial and often politically contentious. The USGS takes no position on these issues but hopes to make a positive contribution to the process whereby these decisions are made. The USGS is an earth science information agency. It collects, manages, and disseminates data; conducts interpretive scientific studies and research; and publishes the results of these efforts in many forms. The work of the USGS is organized into four thematic areas resources, hazards, environment, and information management. Wetlands are addressed in each of these areas. For example, some wetlands play an integral role in water-resource availability because they are major discharge areas for some aquifers. Some wetlands relate to the hazards theme through their role in the mitigation of floods. Wetlands are affected by environmental changes, such as changes in the source or distribution of water, and, in turn, cause changes in the environment, such as shifts in vegetation or in habitat for birds, fish, and other animals; studies of these changes tie into the environmental theme. And, finally, with respect to the information management theme, the process of classifying, monitoring, and understanding wetlands is dependent upon the hydrologic, geologic, and topographic data collected by the USGS. The USGS has taken this opportunity to draw on the expertise of the many agencies and organizations that have missions directly or indirectly related to wetlands to provide a broad background for government officials, water-resource managers, and the general public. You will note that many of the chapters of this volume have authors from other agencies with key roles in research, classification, or management of wetlands. Production of this volume was a team effort, just as management of wetlands is a team effort. We thank our colleagues in the many other agencies that helped make this report possible. I would like to pay special tribute to the late Dr. Edward T. LaRoe of the National Biological Service, coauthor of the chapter on research. He was a leading wetland researcher and played a pivotal role in the evolution of all biological research in the U.S. Department of the Interior. Though this volume merely touches on the many and varied aspects of wetlands, it provides a starting place for further study and a base upon which to begin to understand the values of wetlands to the Nation. We hope it is useful, and we welcome your comments on this volume, as well as on our other products. DIRECTOR ill Hidden River near Homosassa Springs, Florida. (Photograph by Judy D. Fretwell, U.S. Geological Survey.) There has been a lot said about the sacredness of our land which is our body, and the values of our culture which is our soul. But water is the blood of our tribes, and if its life-giving flow is stopped, or it is polluted, all else will die and the many thousands of years of our communal existence will come to an end. Frank Tenorio, Governor, San Felipe Pueblo, 1978 IV National Water Summary Wetland Resources: CONTENTS Contents Foreword .................................................................................................... Ill Executive Summary, State Summary Highlights, and Introduction ............... 1 Executive summary ............................................................................................. State summary highlights..................................................................................... Introduction ........................................................................................................ 3 7 15 Overview of Wetland Resources ................................................................. 17 Technical aspects of wetlands History of wetlands in the conterminous United States Thomas E. Dahl and Gregory]. Allord............ ............................. Wetland definitions and classifications in the United States Ralph W. Tiner.. .......................................................................... Wetland hydrology, water quality, and associated functions Virginia Carter............................................................................. Wetlands as bird habitat Robert E. Stewart, Jr. .................................................................... Wetland management and research Wetland protection legislation Todd H. Votteler and Thomas A. Muir ........................................ Wetland research by Federal agencies Richard E. Coleman, Edward T. LaRoe, and Russell F. Theriot..... Wetland mapping and inventory Bill O. Wilen, Virginia Carter, and J. Ronald Jones ...................... Wetland functions, values, and assessment Richard P. Novitzki, R. Daniel Smith, and Judy D. Fretwell ......... Restoration, creation, and recovery of wetlands Wetland restoration and creation MaryE. Kentula ........................................................................... Effects of Hurricane Andrew (1992) on wetlands in southern Florida and Louisiana John K. Lovelace and Benjamin J. McPherson ............................. Effects of the Great Midwest Flood of 1993 on wetlands James R. Kolva ............................................................................ State Summaries of Wetland Resources ....................................................... Alabama ......................... Alaska............................. Arizona........................... Arkansas ......................... California........................ Colorado......................... Connecticut.................... Delaware ........................ Florida ............................ Georgia........................... Hawaii............................ Idaho .............................. Illinois............................. Indiana ........................... Iowa ............................... Kansas ............................ Kentucky......................... Louisiana ........................ 101 107 115 121 127 135 141 147 153 161 167 173 179 185 191 195 201 207 Maine ............................. Maryland and District of Columbia................. Massachusetts ................. Michigan ........................ Minnesota ....................... Mississippi ...................... Missouri.......................... Montana ......................... Nebraska ........................ Nevada ........................... New Hampshire.............. New Jersey...................... New Mexico ................... New York ....................... North Carolina ................ North Dakota .................. Ohio ............................... 213 219 225 231 237 243 249 255 261 267 273 279 285 291 297 303 309 Oklahoma....................... Oregon ........................... Pennsylvania................... Puerto Rico ..................... Rhode Island ................... South Carolina ................ South Dakota .................. Tennessee ....................... Texas .............................. U.S. Virgin Islands .......... Utah ............................... Vermont.......................... Virginia ........................... Washington .................... West Virginia .................. Western Pacific Islands ... Wisconsin ....................... Wyoming........................ 19 27 35 49 57 65 73 79 87 93 97 99 315 321 327 333 339 345 351 357 363 369 375 381 387 393 399 405 411 417 V VI National Water Summary Wetland Resources: CONTENTS Supplemental Information ........................................................................... 423 Conversion factors............................................................................................... Glossary.............................................................................................................. 424 425 Figures 1-13. Maps showing 1. Distribution of wetlands and deepwater habitats in the United States ......................................................................... 2. States with notable wetland loss, 1 780's to mid-1980's............. 3. Extent of wetlands in Washington County, N. C., circa 1780 and 1900 .............................................................. 4. States with notable wetland loss, early 1600'sto 1800.............. 5. Major United States land acquisitions between 1800 and 1860 6. States with notable wetland loss, 1800 to 1860 ........................ 7. Confederate States of America with wetlands depicted for strategic rather than natural resources value ........................... 8. Location, estimated original acreage, and drainage of Ohio's historic wetlands .................................................................... 9. Wetlands of the Central Valley of California, circa 1850 and 1990....................................................................................... 10. States with notable wetland loss, 1860 to 1900 ........................ 11. States with notable wetland loss, 1900 to 1950 ........................ 12. States with notable wetland loss, 1950 to 1990 ........................ 13. Evolution of Horicon Marsh, Wis., from original marsh, to lake, to swamp, to wildlife refuge ....................................... 14. Cross sections of selected wetland landscapes showing typical positions of wetlands relative to topographic features .......................................... 15. Diagram showing classification hierarchy of wetlands and deepwater habitats showing systems, subsystems, and classes ............................... 16. Photographs of some wetlands in the United States and chart showing examples of their classification ............................................................. 17. Map showing major wetland areas in the United States........................... 18. Diagram showing components of the wetland water budget.................... 19. Diagram of water budgets for selected wetlands in the United States and Canada..................................................................... 20. Cross section showing percentage of transpiration and evaporation from various wetland components........................................................ 21. Graph showing monthly streamflow from two wetlands in northern Minnesota............................................................................................. 22. Cross section showing ground-water flow systems................................... 23. Diagrams showing seasonal changes in storage capacity and evapotranspiration (ET) in wetlands ...................................................... 24. Cross sections showing principal hydrogeologic settings for wetlands ..... 25. Map showing continuous, discontinuous, and sporadic permafrost areas of Alaska............................................................................................... 26. Simplified diagram of the nitrogen cycle in a wetland ............................. 27. Diagram showing movement of the freshwater-saltwater interface in an estuary during periods of high flow and low flow............................. 28-33. Photographs showing 28. A wetland that is habitat for migrating snow geese.................... 5 19 20 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 24 25 27-28 30 33 35 36 37 38 39 39 40 42 43 45 46 49 National Water Summary Wetland Resources: CONTENTS Figures Continued 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40-41. 42-43. 44-46. 47. 48. 49. 50-51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 29. A petroglyph and a clay pot...................................................... 30. A baby heron in a wetland environment................................... 31. Raccoons.................................................................................. 32. An American alligator............................................................... 33. An American bittern hidden in vegetation ................................. Map showing major flyway corridors for migrating birds in the Western Hemisphere ............................................................................ Photograph showing a prothonotary warbler feeding on insects .............. Graph showing the relation of pond density increase to number of ducks ................................................................................................ Photograph showing duck stamps ........................................................... Map showing the location of National Fish and Wildlife Refuge System reserves and Ramsar sites in the United States........................... Schematic diagram showing a typical U.S. Army Corps of Engineers review process for Section 404 dredge-and-fill permit request.............. Graphs showing 40. Status of 40 wetland mitigation projects in south Florida........... 41. Cost of Federal agency wetland research, per State, during fiscal year 1992 ...................................................................... Graphs and charts showing 42. Summary of Federal agency wetland research expenditures by research category during 1992 ............................................... 43. Summary of Federal agency wetland research expenditures by wetland type during 1992 ...................................................... Maps showing 44. Areas of the United States that have been mapped by the National Wetlands Inventory program, and status of those maps, 1996 ............................................................................ 45. Areas of the conterminous United States and Hawaii where wetland data have been digitized by the National Wetlands Inventory program, 1996 ........................................................ 46. Wetlands depicted by unbounded symbols............................... Aerial photograph and map showing wetland features ............................ Photographs and chart detailing the sequence of steps in producing National Wetlands Inventory maps ....................................................... Photograph showing flooding in the Upper Mississippi River Basin, summer 1993........................................................................................ Diagrams showing 50. Wetland functions relative to the location of the wetland within a watershed ................................................................. 51. Wetland functions and internal and external values .................. Photograph showing a view of a restored salt marsh in the Salmon River Estuary on the Oregon coast ................................................................. Diagram showing the relative position of a basin substrate, the water table, and differences in vegetation resulting from the degree of basin slope..................................................................................................... Photograph of a scientist checking to see if a soiJ sample has the unique coloration typical of wetland (hydric) soils ................................ Graph showing a typical performance curve illustrating the comparison of groups of natural wetlands and restored wetlands of the ...
View Full Document

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture