Chapter 12 Notes - Chapter 12 Basic Approaches to...

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Chapter 12: Basic Approaches to Leadership I. What is Leadership? A. John Kotter (Harvard Business School) Definitions 1. Management is about coping with complexity a) Good management brings about order & consistency 2. Leadership is about coping with change a) Good leaders establish direction by developing a vision of the future B. Robert House (Wharton Business School) Definition 1. Management consists of implementing the vision and strategy provided by leaders, coordinating and staffing the organization, and handling day-to-day problems C. Leadership : the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals 1. Source of influence may be formal (managerial rank/authority) – person may assume a leadership role simply because of the position he/she holds in the organization 2. Source may also be informal – leaders emerge from within a group a) nonsanctioned leadership : the ability to influence that arises outside the formal structure of the organization) D. Organizations need strong leadership and strong management for optimal effectiveness 1. Leaders: challenge the status quo, create visions of the future, inspire members to achieve those visions 2. Managers: formulate detailed plans, create efficient organizational structures & oversee day-to-day operations II. Trait Theories A. Trait theories of leadership : theories that consider personal qualities and characteristics that differentiate leaders from nonleaders 1. Research efforts at isolating leadership traits were inconclusive 2. Breakthrough came when researches began organizing traits around the Big Five personality Framework a) Extraversion is the most important trait of effective leaders (1) More strongly related to leader emergence than leader effectiveness b) Conscientiousness and openness to experience also strong c) Agreeableness and emotional stability not strongly correlated 3. Recent studies show that emotional intelligence (EI) may indicate effective leadership a) Core component is empathy – empathetic leaders can sense others’ needs, listen to what followers say (or don’t say), and are able to read others’ reactions b) However, supporting evidence has not yet been fully established B. Conclusions (based on latest findings) 1. Traits can predict leadership
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2. Traits are better at predicting the emergence of leadership than in distinguishing between effective and ineffective leaders a) Exhibiting traits and being considered a leader does not mean the leader is successful at getting his/her group to achieve its goals III. Behavioral Theories A. Behavioral theories of leadership : theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders 1. Difference between trait and behavioral theories lies in their underlying assumptions a) Trait theories assume leaders are born not made (1) Emphasis on selecting the right person to assume leadership roles b) Behavior theories assume leaders can be made or taught (1) Emphasis on training people to assume leadership roles B. Ohio State Studies
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