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1Disorders of the Veins and ArteriesMichelle WarrenAdvanced Pathophysiology6501NSeptember 23, 2018
2Disorders of the Veins and ArteriesThe purpose of this paper is to compare two venous disorders: Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) and Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI). The pathophysiology of both conditions will be discussed and how the selected patient factor can impact both conditions. Specific symptoms, diagnostic testing, and treatment for both conditions will be reviewed. At the end of this paper will be a mind map for both DVT and CVI discussing what has been learned in this paper. Chronic Venous Insufficiency The normal function of veins is to return blood from the body’s organs back to the heart. The blood flows upwards from the veins in the legs. Calf muscles contract with each step squeezing the veins promoting blood to flow upward (Cleveland Clinic, 2018). The valves in the veins are one-way valves, keeping the blood flowing in one direction. Chronic venous insufficiency results from valvular dysfunction allowing retrograde venous blood flow (Lewis, Dirksen, Heitkemper, Bucher, & Camera, 2011). Once a value is damaged the vein is subject to increased pressure from a large volume of blood under the effect of gravity (Huether & McCance, 2017, p. 598). The vein will swell, and the surrounding tissue becomes edematous with the increased hydrostatic pressure pushing plasma through the stretched vessel wall (Huether & McCance, 2017). This continued pressure leads to valvular incompetence, dysfunction, and over time CVI. Damaged or inadequate veins in CVI causes retrograde blood flow, pooling of blood, and tissue swelling (Lewis et al., 2011). The tissue has a brownish pigmentation from hemosiderin deposition (Lewis et al., 2011). Edema is present in the effected leg. The surrounding tissue can become dry and rough. Pain may be present from the swelling of tissue. Pain can be worse when the legs are in the dependent position. CVI causes venous hypertension, circulatory stasis, and
3tissue hypoxia which result in an inflammatory process in the vessel leading to a fibrosclerotic remodeling of the skin and eventually causing skin ulceration (Huether & McCance, 2017). Venous ulcers are common above the medial malleolus. These ulcers can be painful particularly when edema and infection are present. Chronic venous insufficiency is estimated to affect 40 percent of people in the United States. Risks for developing CVI increases with age. Females are at higher risk of developing CVI. Other risk factors for developing CVI include a history of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), varicose veins or a family history of varicose veins, obesity, pregnancy, smoking, and standing orsitting for extended periods of time (Cleveland Clinic, 2018).
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chronic venous insufficiency, Wk 4 Assignment + Mind Maps