Notes on articles for the Midterm

Notes on articles for the Midterm - ISE-370 Article Notes...

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ISE-370 Article Notes Human Factors in Process Plants and Facility Design – Najmedin Meshkati Between 19 and 80 percent of all incidents and accidents at these facilities are caused by “human error” Human errors are significant factors in almost every: o Quality problem o Production outage o Accident at a facility Reduce these numbers by regulations and rulemaking o Address human factors in the process hazard analysis View the role of each subsystem (human, technical, etc.) as a link in a chain o Any increase in the output level or the capacity-utilization rate imposes strain on all the subsystems o The chain will break down if any link fails o A majority of the accidents in complex large-scale technological systems have been caused by breakdowns of the weakest links in the chain, most often the human or organizational subsystems Ergonomics (human factors): field concerned with improving the productivity, health, safety, and comfort of people as well as the effective interaction between people, the technology they are using, and the environment in which both must operate. Specifically focuses on how work affects people; concerns issues such as: o Fatigue due to prolonged monitoring tasks o Injuries due to unsafe workstations o Errors due to a confusing console layout Interdisciplinary; draws from: o Engineering o Physiology o Psychology o Industrial design o Biomechanics o Anthropometry o Information technology o Industrial management Technological systems should be designed with the human operator’s physical and psychological needs, capabilities, and limitations in mind Microergonomics (human engineering): addresses the relationship between humans, equipment, and the physical environment o Focuses on the human-machine system level o Includes: Anthropometrics Physical and psychological abilities and limitations
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Information processing Human decision-making and error o Aims to reduce incompatibilities between operator abilities and system requirements o Areas of microergonomic consideration: Materials handling Hand tool design and use Machinery design Workstation design Workplace environment Macroergonomics : focused on the overall people-technology system level o Concerned with the impact of technological systems on the organizational, managerial, and personal (sub-) systems o Areas of macroergonomic consideration: Job analysis Training Communications Policies and procedures
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