Monday, January 22, 2018Exam 1 Chapter 1 -Corrections: the process where agencies and programs use tools, techniques, and facilities to have organized security and treatments in order to correct criminal tendencies among offenders -Not a collection of agencies— the agencies have the tools -Punishment to changethe behavior -Distinction between correctionsand punishmentmay be quite blurred -Brutalization Hypothesis: the contention that the use of harsh punishments sensitizes people to violences and teachesthem to use it -Early Codes of Law •Designed to guide human behavior and distinguish what was legal and what is not legal •Also stated punishments if laws were broken -Code of Hammurabi:the earliest known written code of punishment •Les talonis:refers to the Babylonian law of equal retaliation -instinctive desire for revenger -Trial By Ordeal: very dangerous (almost impossible) test to proves the guilt or innocences of the accused •Provided by the church •Witchcraft -Sanctuary:a designated building where the accused would stay safely -Public Wrongs:crimes against society or a social group •treason, witchcraft, incest, sex offenses, violation of hunting rules -Private Wrongs: crimes against an individual •physical injury, damage to a person property, theft -Retaliation Through Humiliation •The Gag -constrained a person who was known to constantly scold others •The Bridle -Iron cage that went over the head; made it hard for the offender to talk •The Ducking Stool -Offender was tied to chair and thrown into a body of water -Reserved for women who nagged others, gossiped, or used profane language 1
Monday, January 22, 2018•The Stocks -Wooden frames that an offender would stand through with arms and neck •Pillories -Wooden frame with just the head •Branding -Usually branded on their thumb with a letter representing their offense -Corporal Punishment •Most frequently used— used in a public forum for deterrence effect -Capital Punishment •Death penalties •Way of death varied by country and civilization •Over reliance on the death penalty -Banishment •Exile from society or enslavement in a penal society •Useful alternative to capital punishment •Could be permanent or temporary -Transporting Offenders •Ideal solution to the punishment of criminal offenders •Costs were minimal, it was difficult for offenders to return to England, and offenders would become sources of labor -Indentured Servitude •Consisted of both free persons and offenders -William Penn (1644-1718) •Advocator that criminal offenders were worthy of humane treatment •The Great Law:correctional thinking and reform in Pennsylvania that occurred due to the work of William Penn and the Quakers -Would later be adopted by Cesare Baccaria -Charles Montesquieu (1689-1755) •Persian Letters— illustrated the abuse of criminal law in France/Europe -Francis Voltaire (1694-1778) •Challenged traditional ideas of legalized torture, criminal responsibility, and justice •Imprisoned in Bastille for 11 months for his writing -Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794) 2
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