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Nursing 6521 Main post Week 1 Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Drugs are commonly used to address patient illnesses, address symptoms, and for preventative healthcare. The process by which the drugs affect and move through the system defined as pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. According to Arcangelo, Peterson, Wilbur and Reinhold (2017) pharmacokinetics is the movement of the drug through the body to get to site and pharmacodynamics describes the action, the effect that the drug has on the body. These two actions, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are essential with regards to achieving a response from the human body with the aim to reach therapeutic results. The importance of pharmacokinetics is not only related to how the drug is absorbed, distributed, and eliminated but it also helps clinicians to identify when therapeutic results could be achieved. According to Spruill, Spruill, Wade, DiPiro, Coleman, Hershey and Wade (2014) “pharmacokinetics, the study of the time course of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion; clinical pharmacokinetics which is the application of pharmacokinetic principles enables clinicians to safely and therapeutically manage drugs in individual patients as well as enhance the efficacy and decrease toxicity of patient’s drug therapy" (p.1). Additionally it is important to recognize that “ a drug’s effect is often related to its concentration at the site of action, so it is useful to monitor the concentration recognizing that receptor sites of drugs are typically not accessible to observation; therefore, direct measurement of drug concentration at the site is not practical, but drug concentration can be measured in other easily sampled fluids such as blood, plasma, urine, and saliva” (p.1). With regards to pharmacodynamics, the clinician is evaluating for the “dynamic or dynamite” response that the drug is going to have on the body. In other words, the therapeutic or desired response from the body. Rosenbaum (2017), “pharmacodynamics is the study of the magnitude of the drug response, examining the onset, intensity, and duration of drug response as well as the relation of the concentration of the drug at the site of action' (p.49). The body’s response to the drug is caused by the chemical interaction between the drug and the macromolecule (drug-receptor) that creates a chemical bonding, which creates a stimulus that causes a biochemical or physiological response that fades away as the drug is eliminated from the body (Rosenbaum, 2017). There are many factors that can have an impact on the process of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. It is important to recognize that according to Arcangelo, Peterson, Wilbur, and Reinhold (2017), pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are a system in which the two are dependent and related with regards to concentration of the drug in the body such as in the plasma and concentration at the site of action. However there are many factors that can have an impact on this system, such as age, genetics, body size, behaviors and pathological issues such as liver, kidney disease and the list goes on. An example of an
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