BBH222 Regional integration in Sub-Saharan Africa is not a recent phenomenon. At least two unions, the Southern African Custom Union and the East African Community have existed since 1910 and 1919 respectively. Regional integration arrangements initially became fashionable in the 1960s, following the formation of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Free Trade Area in 1960. These were pursued by a large number of regional integration agreements in the developing world as well. In Africa, at the first two post- colonial meetings in April 1958 and in June 1960, African leaders adopted regionalism as one panacea for the economic constraints imposed by the smallness and fragmentation of national markets. Nevertheless, history has shown that the ISI policies not only failed in individual countries but also in the regional integration groupings. Such arrangements launched to fallout of fashion in the 1970s, in part because the first experiences were not successful (William et al, 1997). However, in the late 1980s and early 1990s, regional integration has again become an attractive policy option, in both the developed and developing world. In this regard, since the end of cold war and with the emergency of powerful trading blocs, there has been a renewed interest in Africa concerning the need to create strong regional economic integration (REI) mechanisms to promote economic growth (Baldwin, 1997). According to ECA( 2006), even though the African Union only recognizes eight RECs, the continent currently has fourteen inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), working on regional integration issues, with numerous treaties and protocols governing relations among them, and between them and the member states. Among these regional schemes, Southern African Development Community (SADC) is a regional bloc working for the southern African sub region of the continent .Hence, this study confines to this regional scheme. Next, it summarizes the historical and present status of the region under the study. 3 Genesis of Southern African Development Community (SADC) Originally known as the Southern African Development Co-ordination Conference (SADCC), the organization was formed in Lusaka, Zambia on 1 April 1980, following the adoption of the Lusaka Declaration. SADCC’s original strategy was to concentrate on promoting co-operation in the area of infrastructure. In practice, its primary activities were the co-ordination of members’ development initiatives and assistance in raising funds for these projects. 1
SADCC only had limited success in economic co-operation and development endeavor. In 1989, at the SADCC Heads of State meeting in Harare, it was decided to formalize the organization by giving it legal status that would replace the existing memorandum of agreement. Four years of consultation followed, the Declaration and Treaty of the SADC was eventually signed by Heads of State and Government in Windhoek, Namibia in 1992.
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