psych 100 final reveiw - Psychology Final Review A syndrome...

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Psychology Final Review!!! 08/12/2007 20:35:00 A syndrome is considered a mental disorder if: 1) it involves a clinically significant detriment: distress of impairment of  functioning.; must be serious enough to warrant professional treatment. 2) it derives from an internal source—in the person’s biology, mental structure  or learned habits. 3) it is not subject to voluntary control. -decision of who or what is or is not a mental disorder represent human judgments and  social values and pragmatic concerns of those doing the judging. Diagnostic systems can be reliable without being valid. -diagnostic labels to disorders only: “John has schizophrenia” vs. “John is  schizophrenic” -Culture bound disorders: taijin kyofusho: common in japan but nowhere else: incapacitating fear that  one will offend or harm others through awkward social behavior or imagined  physical defect. Anorexia: prevalent mostly in western societies. ADHD:  involve deficits in the prefrontal lobes of cortex 1: predominantly inattentive type: lack of attention to instructions, failure to  concentrate on school work 2: predominantly hyperactive-impulsive: fidgeting, talking excessively 3: combined type: both sets of symptoms methylphenidate: increases the activity f dopamine and norepinephrine, boost  neural activity in prefrontal cortex Phobias:  social: fear of being scrutinized by others
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specific: being afraid of object or situations classical psychodynamic theory: phobia object as a symbol to early  experience and unresolved unconscious conflict. Conditioning: phobia as a result of traumatic avoidance Biological: “preparedness” for fear learning of specific things and conditions Brain: heritable individual differences in limbic and autonomic nervous  system. OCD: to meet DSM criteria, obsessions/compulsions must consume at least one  hour per day. Linked to observable brain abnormalities in portions of frontal lobes of cortex  and parts of limbic system and basal ganglia (work together to control  voluntary actions) CAUSES of mental disorders: Predisposing factors: make people susceptible to disorder. Inherited  characteristic that affect brain—can also arise from damaging encode on  brain before birth, such as poisons, birth difficulties, and viruses/bacteria. Precipitating causes: immediate events in a person’s life that can bring on a  disorder.
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