13.pdf - Executive Branch Presidential and Parliamentary...

This preview shows page 1 - 14 out of 48 pages.

Executive Branch Presidential and Parliamentary Systems
Parliamentarism vs. Presidentialism What is the presidential system? How is it different from parliamentary systems? What are the comparative advantages and disadvantages of presidentialism and parliamentarism?
Branches of the government First, we need to remind ourselves of the three main branches of the government Legislatures: Executives: Judiciaries:
Branches of the government Legislatures: make the law Executives: implement law Judiciaries: interpret the law
Separation of powers Contemporary representative and participatory democracy is based on the doctrine of separation of powers According to this doctrine, each of the three functions of the government (legislation, execution , and judiciary) should be given to a separate branch of the government. Why?
Separation of powers The purpose is to fragment (divide) the power of the government in such a way to limit the possibility of tyranny and maximize individual freedom The underlying assumption here is that a government functions best when its powers do not rest in a single authority but are instead divided among different branches i.e. executive, legislative and judiciary But what does “separation” mean in practice ?
Separation of powers Separation of power comprises of two principles: Independence: (ideally) there should be no overlap of personnel between the branches. Interdependence: Effective checks and balances. Each branch of the government should be able to limit the power of the other two branches.
CHECKS AND BALANCES: No branch should be powerful enough to dominate the others. Branches should keep each other under control. They should balance each other.
Presidential vs. Parliamentary Systems While separation of power is central to all modern, democratic governments, there are various institutional arrangements that deal with the separation Countries have come up with different methods of achieving separation of powers and to varying degrees
Presidential vs. Parliamentary Systems While separation of power is central to all modern, democratic governments, there are various institutional arrangements that deal with the separation Countries have come up with different methods of achieving separation of powers and to varying degrees One primary source of variation is parliamentary vs presidential systems
Presidential vs. Parliamentary Systems In the presidential system, the executive and legislative branches of the government are separate There is no overlap in people There is effective checks and balances Also known as “hard separation of powers”
Presidential vs. Parliamentary Systems In the parliamentary system, the two branches are combined, fused in practice Same people may be in both branches Checks and balances are different Also known as “soft separation of powers”
Parliamentary Systems In the parliamentary system, the government

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture