Anthropology 105- Human Species Lecture Notes.pdf -...

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Anthropology 105- Human Species 08/28/2018 Deoxyribonucleic Acid: DNA; can be modified though gene editing Chromosome: long string of DNA coiled into a dense, thick rod Gene: section of the chromosome that makes proteins or regulates other genes Proteins are the LEGO blocks of your body, and genes make these proteins, or regulate other genes that make proteins (turn them on or off to make more/less of a protein) Alleles: different versions of a gene DNAmade up of 4 bases: Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, and Cytosine (A&T and C&G) DNA can be found in: Nuclear DNA- in the nucleus; 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) Mitochondrial DNA “mtDNA”; inherited only from your mother, circular in form and much shorter than nuclear DNA - only about 16,000 base pairs, compared to the billions of base pairs in nuclear DNA Sequences of bases determine DNA function 08/31/2018 Friedrich Miescher: identified DNA Avery: material of inheritance (bacteria) Rosalind Franklin: first evidence of DNA shape Watson and Crick: double helix To make a protein: helicase un-zips the DNA, a matching RNA strand is built using enzyme called RNA polymerase, the RNA goes off to build to protein via mRNA out of the nucleus Different sequences lead to different proteins How is DNA read and processed? DNA is transcribed into RNA, RNA is translated into protein DNA bases are like letters, their sequence determines their function Meiosis: producing “gametes”, sperm and eggs; its a two phase cell division process that reduces diploid cells (two sets of chromosomes) to haploid cells (one set of chromosomes) Meiosis I: homologous pairs are separated Prophase I: chromosomes pair up, get dense, recombination Metaphase I: homologous chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate Anaphase I: meiotic spindles pull chromosomes apart, sister chromatids stay together Telophase I & Cytokinesis: cell pinches, splitting, sister chromatids Meiosis II: duplicated sister chromatids become separated Prophase II: two daughter cells (products of Meiosis I) Metaphase II: chromosomes line up at metaphase plate Anaphase II: sister chromatids pulled apart Telophase II & Cytokinesis: cell is pinched and there is splitting, one chromatid per chromosome
Reproduction: passing DNA from parent to offspring; sperm has 23 chromosomes mtDNA in tail, egg has 23 chromosomes mtDNA inside; embryo has 46 chromosomes one set from each parent and mtDNA from mother Genotype and Phenotype: example: genotype short and long fur in cats, phenotype is short fur (short fur is dominant) Mendel’s Rues of Inheritance work for many simple traits : dimples, hairline, etc. in humans Mendel: you have two copies of each gene, one from mother the other from the father, these may be the same alleles, which would make them homozygous, or different alleles, in which cause they would be heterozygous. Together the alleles determine the phenotype.

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