CS4431 and CS6431Wireshark DNS HomeworkAdapted with permission from Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach, 7thed.,J.F.Kurose and K.W. RossAs described in Section 2.4 of the text1, the Domain Name System (DNS) translates hostnames to IP addresses, fulfilling a critical role in the Internet infrastructure. In this lab, we’ll take a closer look at the client side of DNS. Recall that the client’s role in the DNS is relatively simple – a client sends a queryto its local DNS server, and receives a responseback. As shown in Figures 2.19 and 2.20 in the textbook, much can go on “under the covers,” invisible to the DNS clients, as the hierarchical DNS servers communicate with each other to either recursively or iteratively resolve the client’s DNS query. From the DNS client’s standpoint, however, the protocol is quite simple – a query is formulated to the local DNS server and a response is received from that server.Before beginning this lab, you’ll probably want to review DNS by reading Section 2.4 of the text. In particular, you may want to review the material on local DNS servers, DNS caching, DNS records and messages, and the TYPE fieldin the DNS record. 1. nslookupIn this lab, we’ll make extensive use of the nslookuptool, which is available in most Linux/Unix and Microsoft platforms today. To run nslookupin Linux/Unix, you just type the nslookupcommand on the command line. To run it in Windows, open the Command Prompt and run nslookupon the command line. In it is most basic operation, nslookuptool allows the host running the tool to query any specified DNS server for a DNS record. The queried DNS server can be a root DNS server, a top-level-domain DNS server, an authoritative DNS server, or an intermediate DNS server (see the textbook for definitions of these terms). To accomplish this task, nslookupsends a DNS query to the specified DNS server, receives a DNS reply from thatsame DNS server, and displays the result. 1References to figures and sections are for the 7thedition of our text, Computer Networks, A Top-down Approach, 7thed., J.F. Kurose and K.W. Ross, Addison-Wesley/Pearson, 2016.
The above screenshot shows the results of three independent nslookupcommands (displayed in the Windows Command Prompt). In this example, the client host is located on the campus of Polytechnic University in Brooklyn, where the default local DNS serveris dns-prime.poly.edu. When running nslookup, if no DNS server is specified, then nslookupsends the query to the default DNS server, which in this case is dns-prime.poly.edu. Consider the first command:nslookup In words, this command is saying “please send me the IP address for the host ;. As shown in the screenshot, the response from this command provides two pieces of information: (1) the name and IP address of the DNS server that provides the answer; and (2) the answer itself, which is the host name and IP address of . Although the response came from the local DNS server at Polytechnic