2Running head: IMMUNITYImmunity System: Innate & AdaptiveIntroductionImmunity equips the human body with a complex weapon of protection: the three lines of defense protect against damage froma microorganism (viral, bacterial, fungi, and parasites), toxins, and cancers. The purpose of this paper is to describe immunity pathophysiology to enable the Advanced Nurse Practitioner (ANP) to recognize the bodies attempt to maintain or return to homeostasis. The knowledge allows the ANP to perform a differential diagnosis of the diseases presented in practice. A body is protected by three interactive complex lines of defense: physical barriers (first line), the innate (second line) and adaptive (third line) immunity systems (Huether & McCance, 2017, table 6.1).Scenario 1 – Pathophysiology: Alterations: Adaptive Responses The first scenario illustrates an example of innate immunity specifically the nonspecific second line of defense. The two-year-old female child presents with an ill appearance, febrile, loss of appetite with painful swallow, swollen, palpable, tender cervical nodes, slightly reddened tympanic membranes, throat erythematous 4+ tonsils with diffuse exudate, and stable normal heart and respiratory rate (Walden University [WU], n.d., Scenario 1). The differential diagnosis is viral versus bacterial tonsillitis. Acute tonsillitis is a leading otorhinolaryngology disease affecting all ages. For this prominent disease, there is no vaccine (Gahleitner, Hofauer, Stark, & Knopf, 2016, p. 964). The bodies’ response to cellular injury from a pathogenic invasion is an acute inflammatory response of innate immunity. The mast cells degranulate, plasma systems (complement and kinin system) are activated that causes cellular infiltration, increased blood flow, vasodilation (warmth, erythema) and increased vascular permeability (edema) along with
3Running head: IMMUNITYstimulation of nerve endings, i.e. throat pain (Huether & McCance, 2017, figure 6-3).