3. Gene_Study_Guide_xx.pptx - Unit 3.Gene Mendel meets molecular Part 1 Mendelian to Molecular Inheritance Patterns of Genes Mendelian Concepts for

3. Gene_Study_Guide_xx.pptx - Unit 3.Gene Mendel meets...

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Unit 3.Gene Mendel meets molecular
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Part 1. Mendelian to Molecular Inheritance Patterns of Genes
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Mendelian Concepts for Study How did Mendel’s experimental approach address the puzzle of inheritance? What is meant by “Mendelian inheritance?” Apply Medelian genetics to experimental problems in various organisms, including humans. Address monohybrid (one trait), dyhybrid (two traits), and multiple traits in crosses. Why do we do “genetics in reverse” in humans? How is this done?
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Molecular Concepts for Study Genes as “functional units of DNA” Understanding that the Mendelian patterns happen for a molecular reason. What looks like a phenotype is the action of a protein/enzyme. Redefining Mendelian (abstract) words in molecular (concrete) terms Dominant/Recessive Allele Mutant Heterozygous
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Let’s try blending Mendelian and Molecular Concepts We’ll start with some terms we all know. Think about how each approach gives a different perspective on the same thing.
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Genotypes and Phenotypes Phenotype – Mendelian or Molecular: Observable characteristic of an organism Genotype – Mendelian: a pair of alleles present in and individual, Molecular: Gene sequences Homozygous – Mendelian: two alleles of trait are the same (YY or yy), Molecular: gene sequences on both copies of gene are the same. Heterozygous – Mendelian: two alleles of trait are different (Yy), Molecular: gene sequences on both copies of gene are the different.
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Dominant versus Recessive Tell me what makes one version of a trait (or a gene) considered “ dominant ” over some other version, considered “ recessive .” Medelian or molecular definitions?
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Though we have learned the same thing in 2 separate boxes, remember, we are talking about the same phenomena.
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Not that simple Molecular perspectives give us unique ways of understanding that genotypes are not the only factor in phenotypes
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Molecular Biology is new Our ability to probe genetics with molecular tools only arose in the 1970s, so let’s think like Mendel for a moment…
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1800’s: State of Genetics Artificial selection had developed into precise techniques for controlled matings in plants and animals to produce desired traits in many of offspring But breeders (farmers) could not explain why traits would sometimes disappear and then reappear in subsequent generations.
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The Paradox of Genetics Offspring resemble their parents Offspring are not identical to their parents
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1851 Abbot Napp at the Monastery in in Moravia set forth these questions What is inherited? How is it inherited? What is the role of chance in heredity? Napp became Mendel’s mentor, sent him to study at University of Vienna (mostly math and physics)
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Gregor Mendel (1822- 1884)
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Mendel’s workplace
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Why Peas?
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Mendel’s experiments The garden pea was an ideal organism Self fertilization Cross fertilization Large number of offspring Short generation time Mendel established pure breeding lines to conduct his experiments
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