Advanced biology study guide and test #5

Advanced biology study guide and test #5 - Advanced Biology...

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Advanced Biology Study Guide Aaron Wood 1. Define the following: A. Sarcomere: The repeating unit of a myofibril. B. Neuron: The functional unit of the nervous system, a nerve cell. C. Synapse: The interference between a nerve cell and another cell. D. Neurotransmitter: A chemical release by a neuron. This chemical travels across the synaptic cleft, allowing the neuron to communicate with another cell. E. Motor Unit: One motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it innervates. F. All-or-none law of skeletal muscle contraction: An individual muscle fiber contracts with equal force in response to each action potential. G. Subthreshold stimulus: A stimulus too small to create an action potential in a neuron. H. Threshold stimulus: A stimulus strong enough to create one action potential in a neuron. I. Submaximal stimuli: Stimuli of increasing strength that create more action potentials along more neurons. J. Maximal stimulus: A stimulus which is strong enough to create action potentials in all motor neurons innervating a whole muscle. K. Muscle tone: The state of partial contraction in a muscle, even when the muscle is not being used. 2. What are the four major functional characteristics of muscle tissue? A. Contractibility B. Excitability C. Extensibility D. Elasticity 3. What are the three types of muscle tissue? A. Skeletal B. Smooth C. Cardiac 4. Label the following structures of a whole muscle: 5. In terms of their nuclei, skeletal muscle fibers are different than most cells in two ways. What are those ways? Skeletal muscle cells are multinucleated (many nuclei). The nuclei are at the outside edge of the cell rather than the middle. 6. Label the parts of the sarcomere below: A. Actin myofilament B. Myosin myofilament C. Z Disk D. H Zone E. A Band F. I Band 7. When a muscle fiber contracts, what happens to: A. The distance between the Z disks?
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