The Ethnography of Communication.pptx

The Ethnography of Communication.pptx - The Ethnography of...

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The Ethnography of Communication Presented By: Aini Mutiah Sabrina F022172001 Nasriandi F022171012 1
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Introduction The approach to the sociolinguistics of language in which the use of language in general is related to social and cultural values. The acknowledge ‘FATHER’ of this way of studying linguistics is Dell Hymes. Hymes (1962/1968) said that the ethnography of speaking is concerned with the situations and uses, the patterns and functions, of speaking as an activity in its own. The Ethnography of Communication 2
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Essential Concepts Speech Community Situation, event, and act Speaking The Ethnography of Communication 3
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Essential Concepts Examples: Schegloff (1972) pointed out that most middle-class white Americans (and possibly members of other Western societies as well), have a ‘no gap, no overlap’ rule for conversational turn-taking. Saville-Troike (1982) reports that there are American Indian groups where it is common for a person to wait several minutes in silence before answering a question or taking a speaking turn. Reisman (1974) found that it was quite the usual practice for Antiguans to carry on discussions with more than one speaker speaking simultaneously. English and American has a different rule for speaking in public places, although they have the same language. Speech Community The Ethnography of Communication 4
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Speech Community The rules for speaking can be different from one social group to another. Members of one social group in ethnographic description cannot be all citizens of the same country. Sharing the same language doesn’t mean that two social groups have the same rule for speaking. Essential Concepts The Ethnography of Communication From those examples, the ethnographers of communication find it necessary to develop the concept of speech community . 5
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Speech Community Hymes (1972b: 53-5) insists that all members of a speech community share not only the same rules for speaking, but at least one linguistic variety as well. Saville-Troike (1982:20) speaks that a speech community need not share a language. Saville-Troike also states that it’s not necessary for each speaker to belong to only one speech community or even to two completely separate communities. People can be and normally are members of several communities at the same time. By all definitions, a speech community must at least share rules for speaking. Essential Concepts The Ethnography of Communication Defining speech community: 6
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Situation, event, and act According to Hymes, speech situation can be associated or marked by the absence of speech. It means that speech situations are not purely communicative; they maybe composed of both communicative and other kinds of events. Speech situations are not themselves subject to rules of speaking, but can be referred to by rules of speaking as contexts.
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