2 - Theories

2 - Theories - Theories in Clinical Psychology 17/01/2007...

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Unformatted text preview: Theories in Clinical Psychology 17/01/2007 20:02:00 Theory Must explain Must be repeatedly testable and prove true. Should be able to predict the phenomena. Models of human behavior are the same thing o Explain human behavior Should meet 6 criteria o Parsimony: the best explanation is always the simplest. It only contains the elements necessary to sufficiently account for at what we are looking. Only contains the critical points. o Logical and internal consistency: each element of a theory builds on the next in a cumulative fashion. Logical progression from one step to the next. The different element will not contradict one another. o Testability: should be able to generate a hypothesis that can be tested Should be able to define and measure every element of that theory. o Supported by empirical research: scientific research. o Applicable to diverse problems and populations o Theory should be able to change and grow with new information Explain why we act, feel, think the way we do. If we can predict it, we should be able to explain how to change it. Model of human behavior will also determine what information we seek from a person Determines how we gather the information. Determines how we structure interactions with clients. Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic theory of human behavior Started by Sigmund Freud. His model of human behavior was only based on a few people, his personal clients. It is the oldest and most popular explanation of personality, human development, and psychopathology. People are born with predetermined powerful instincts and drives, and a motivation to seek immediate gratification of our needs and to avoid pain. o The problem is that this drive conflicts with the rules of society. Three different parts of personality o Id: the inborn drives and desires (instincts). Always trying to express itself. Operates on the pleasure principle. Fueled by the libido: psychic energy associated with instincts. o Superego: the conscience. Has internalized the rules of society, and tries to enforce those rules hardcore. It makes us feel guilt. Knows right from wrong. o Ego: operates on the reality principle. It negotiates between the id the and the superego. Tries to get needs met in reality. o Conflicts are painful. o Defense mechanisms help keep conflict out of our consciousness....
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2 - Theories - Theories in Clinical Psychology 17/01/2007...

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