7 - Intelligence Testing

7 - Intelligence Testing - Intelligence Testing 5:11:00 PM...

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Intelligence Testing 21/02/2007 20:11:00 What is intelligence? Hypothetical concstruct: exists only in the way we choose to define it o Very subjective Cannot touch it or directly observe it Can only observe its consequences Intelligence tests are an imperfect reflection of only a part of a total concept Dimensions of intelligence Genotypic intelligence vs. phenotypic intellgiengence o Genotypic: innate capacity of individuals, what a person can do o Phenotypic: how individuals currently perform, what a person currently  does “g” factor vs. “set of s’s” o Single, global general ability that governs all aspects of intellectual  functioning o Set of specific ability that are related to one another but largely  independent o Spearman (1923): a single factor (g) governs all o Guildford (1967): 120 separate aspects of intelligence o Currently 150 specific intellectual functions identified Independent vs. related to nonintellectual factors o Do other factors influence intelligence? o Environment, motivation, emotion
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Definitions of Intelligence Binet and Simon (1916) o Common sense/judgment o Ability to adapt to one’s circumstances o Comprehension and reasoning skills Wechsler (1939) o To think rationally o To act purposefully o To deal effectively with one’s environment Gardner (1983) o Problem-solving skills in resolving problems encountered in real life o Ability to find or create problems, allowing for acquisition of new  knowledge Sternberg (1990) o Mental activities involved with purposefully adapting and dealing with  real-world situations and problems
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7 - Intelligence Testing - Intelligence Testing 5:11:00 PM...

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