Appendicular Skeleton & Joints.pdf - Appendicular Skeleton and Joints APPENDICULAR SKELETON pectoral girdle upper limb pelvic girdle lower limb

Appendicular Skeleton & Joints.pdf - Appendicular...

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Appendicular Skeleton and Joints APPENDICULAR SKELETON pectoral girdle, upper limb, pelvic girdle , lower limb Upper Limb vs. Lower Limb Quadrupeds: all 4 limbs are there for stabilization and locomotion Bipeds: evolved so that lighter upper limb does complex fine movement while heavier lower limb does powerful movements and supports weight during walking and running Regions: Shoulder Arm Forearm Hand Joints: Glenohumeral (GH) Joint Elbow Joint Wrist Joint Bones: Pectoral Girdle Humerus Radius Ulna Bones of Hand & Wrist PECTORAL GIRDLE made up of clavicle and scapula attaches upper limbs to axial skeleton via Sternoclavicular joint highly mobile Clavicle Sternal End: where it articulates with sternum Acromial end: articulates with the acromion of the scapula Conoid Tubercle - ligament attachment
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Trapezoid Line - ligament attachment Subclavian Groove - muscle attachment all 3 help keep the clavicle down Scapula has 3 borders and 3 angles Superior Border Superior Angle Spine - runs diagonally across scapula, becomes the acromion process at the end which articulates with the clavicle Supraspinous Fossa - shallow depression for muscle above the spine Infraspinuous Fossa - shallow depression for muscle below the spine Subscapular Fossa - shallow depression on the anterior aspect of the scapula Medial Border runs parallel to vertebrae, medial aspect Inferior Angle Lateral Border from posterior aspect Glenoid Cavity/Glenoid Fossa - where humerus articulates creates glenohumeral joint head of humerus is much larger than glenoid cavity allows for lots of mobility within upper limb Coracoid Process - anteriorly projection o ff of the top of the scapula UPPER LIMB Humerus Head of Humerus - Anatomical Neck - Surgical Neck - most often where a bone will fracture Tubercule Greater Tubercle Lesser Tubercule Intertubercular Sulcus (Bicepital Groove) protects one of the bicep tendons Deltoid Tuberosity (A,M) - attachment for deltoid muscle Radial Groove (P,M) - shallow groove where radial nerve runs Medial Epicondyle (P, D, M) - muscle attachment Lateral Epicondyle (P, D, L) - muscle attachment Capitulum - articulates precisely with head of radius during flexion, head of radius slides over capituum into radial fossa “thumb” Trochlea - “spool of thread” Radial Tuberosity - bump downward from head of radius Ulna - has coronoid process during flexion, conoid process slides over capitulum into coronoid fossa in line with pinky (UP)
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Olecrenon Process - nestles into fossa in extension Olecrenon Fossa - Forearm Radial Notch Head Neck Radial Tuberosity Olecranon Process Trochlear notch - articulates with the trochlea of the humerus Coronoid Process Interosseous Membrane - holds the radius and ulna together connective tissue Radioulnar Joints important for supination and pronation distal and proximal Styloid Processes - on both ulna and radius Wrist/Hand WRIST: Carpals Some Lovers Try Positions That They Can’t Handle Proximal row, lateral side -> moving medially Only the radius articulates with the carpal bones:
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  • Fall '15
  • Melling
  • Ligament, Glenohumeral joint, posterior longitudinal ligament, Clinical Correlate, Anular Ligament of Radius

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