Chapter 13: Expansion, War, and Sectional Crisis, 1844-1860 Topic/Objective: Intensified by expansion and deepening regional divisions, debates over slavery and other economic, cultural, and political issues led the nation into civil war. (Key Concept 5.2) Name: Class/Period: Date: Essential Question: Provide examples of how the institution of slavery and its attendant ideological debates, along with regional economic and demographic changes, territorial expansion in the 1840’s and 1850’s, and cultural differences between the North and the South, all intensified sectionalism. (Key Concept 5.2 I) Vocabulary: Manifest Destiny – People should control land from east coast to west coast American Progress by John Gast -- painting that served as a visual representation of Manifest Destiny Introduction: What is the “vision” for America that is being referenced? Visionaries conceived America's future both as a republic and an empire, and they predicted glorious expansions across the continent. What obstacles stood in the way of our “dream”? Transportation was a major issue because there was no way to travel from the Pacific to the Atlantic Oceans quickly at this point in time. Also, the Midwest was home to Native Americans that had the potential to react violently to American expansion. What territories are gained under President Polk, how does this acquisition lead to further sectionalism? Polk annexed New Mexico, California, and the Oregon Country to the United States. These additions led to arguments between the North and South about slavery. Manifest Destiny: South and North - Summarize the Missouri Crisis (1819-22) When Missouri wanted to be added to the United States, there was a political conflict about whether Missouri would be allowed to have slaves or not. As a result, the Missouri Compromise was created to balance the ratio of free states to slave states. The Push to the Pacific Who is living in the Oregon Territory? British and American people Why did US merchants show a sudden interest in the Oregon Territory? Lots of ports and fertile land Describe life on the trail to Oregon Floods, dust storms, livestock deaths, few encounters with American Indians 1
Describe the lifestyle and demographics of California Before 3,000 Americans came to California during the Oregon trail, the population was mostly Spanish/Mexican people that farmed and had an overwhelmingly agricultural economy. How did California become “Americanized?” People in California adopted American's manners, attitudes, and Catholic religion. How did the white settlement of the plains affect the lives of the Natives? When white people settled close to the plains they spread diseases such as smallpox with the Natives. Guns bought from Europeans increase violence in the plains. Also, the white people hunted buffalo, which was the main source of protein for the Natives, and soon the buffalo population was severely endangered.