Chapter 1 notes

Chapter 1 notes - Chapter 1 Introduction *Read Chapters 1...

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Chapter 1 – Introduction **Read Chapters 1 and 2 What is Statistics? Statistics is the scientific application of mathematical principles to the collection, analysis, and presentation of data…at the foundation of all of statistics is data. Engineers and scientists are constantly exposed to data that they are expected to make sense of and statistics is a tool that, if used properly , allows us to gain knowledge about how physical systems work Statistics vs. Mathematics: In mathematics there is usually a set equation and solution for problems. Statistics involves much more uncertainty. Although we still base our work on equations, when dealing with small sets of data we are never 100% certain of the “answer”. Engineering statistics is the study of how best to 1) Collect engineering data 2) Summarize or describe engineering data 3) Draw formal inferences and practical conclusions on the basis of engineering data all the while recognizing the reality of variation. Section 1.2 – Basic Terminology Types of Statistical Studies Observational study – A study in which the investigator’s role is basically passive. A process is watched or recorded, without interventions from the person conducting the study. o Example : A researcher keeps track of how many cars drive on a certain stretch of road over a one-hour period to study why so many accidents occur there. Experimental study – A study in which the investigator’s role is active. Process variables are manipulated and the study environment is regulated. o Example : A researcher tests the fracture strength properties of bricks by subjecting them to different heat and measuring the fracture point. Experimental studies are more commonly seen when collecting engineering data (although I’m not sure this is the case in meteorology). Experiment studies are more efficient and reliable (quicker to manipulate variables and watch the response than to passively observe) and make it easier to infer causality (to say one thing causes another in an experiment). In experimental studies the researcher can control other variables that may affect the outcome, but that are not of
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Chapter 1 notes - Chapter 1 Introduction *Read Chapters 1...

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