ANTHP LECTURES.docx - Tuesday 1/30 Friday 2/2 OUTLINE 1...

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Tuesday 1/30 & Friday 2/2OUTLINE 1.TERMS: Gene, Chromosome, DNA, base, Allele2.Structure of DNA3.How do genes work?4.How are genes inherited?5.Genotype and Phenotype6.Mendel’s Rules of Inheritance Deoxyribonucleic Acid: DNA – Complex MoleculeLONG thread of material; “twisted ladder shaped”--- double helixChopped up into chromosomes Bases:Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine--- G and C ; T and AoTo make a protein, the DNA unzips, exposing the bases on one side oA matching RNAstrand is built, using the sequence of exposed DNA bases (Uracil base replaces T and sticks to A)oThe RNAgoes off to build the protein oDifferent sequences = different proteins oDNA bases are like letters; their sequence determines their function ChromosomeLONG string of DNA coiled into a dense, thick rodWe have 46 (23 pairs) GeneA section of the chromosome that makes proteins or regulates other genes (turn them on or off to make more/less protein)Proteinsare the Lego blocks of your body Allelesare alternative different versions of the same gene-Nuclear DNA: in nucleus - Mitochondrial DNA (Mother)Meiosis: producing “gametes”, sperm and eggs Gametes have 23 chromosomes (split)
Reproduction:passing DNA from parent to offspring Sperm:23 chromosomes mtDNA in tailEgg:23 chromosomes mtDNA inside Embryo: 46 chromosomes (2 sets of 23, 1 set for each parent ; mtDNA from Mother)Genotype & PhenotypeGenotype:Set of alleles that you have //ex: homozygous short (SS) *Genetic make-up of an organismPhenotype: What you actually measure; physical// ex: short fur*Observable physical features of an organism- Physical expression of genotypeDominant: allele that gets expressedRecessive: allele that doesn’t get expressed Heterozygous: 2 different allelesHomozygous: 2 same alleles Mendel’s Rules of InheritanceYou have 2 copies of each geneOne inherited from bio. MotherOne inherited from bio. Father These may be the same alleles or they may be differentTogether these alleles determine the phenotype(alleles may be dominant, recessive, codominant)
Tuesday, 2/6OUTLINE1.Simple “Mendelian” Traits2.Mendel’s Rules: segregation, independent assortment, dominance 3.Complex Traits4.Genotype & Environment---phenotype5.Norm of Reaction6.Pleiotropy7.Examples...ABO Blood Type System – A simple “Mendelian” TraitAlleles: A, B, O (3 diff versions) Genotype Phenotype (blood type)AA A AB AB** A and B are codominant **BB BAO A (A is dominant to O)BO B (B is dominant to O)OO OBut what about cases where your mtDNAonly get ONE COPY? Y chromosomeWhat about Pleiotropy? (one gene has many effects)Traits with many genes affecting them How are traits determined?

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