Midterm review final.docx - Family decline Marriage has...

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Family decline Marriage has weakened as an institution because of cultural and moral weakening : values of selfish individualism has undermined “family values” and liberal divorce laws. So declining families have put a “generation at risk” increases in poverty, absence of fathers Solution? Change the culture of marriage and parenthood Family change Family is changing, but it has always been adapting to large scale societal changes because of Economic change and Americans value increased independence and choice. So Changes in women’s lives in work and family roles has given them broader opportunities Solution: address structural mismatches in employment, schools, policy Private family Two or more individuals who maintain an intimate relationship that they expect will last, and who live in the same household and pool their income and household labor. It provides love, intimacy and emotional support. Ex: cohabiting/gay/lesbian couples without children Public family one adult, or two adults who are related by marriage, partnership, or shared parenthood, who is/are taking care of dependents, and the dependents themselves. The presence of dependents is the key to this definition. Dependency can be defined economically, or based on help. It raises the next generation, caring for elderly, the ill and disabled. Public goods Things that might be enjoyed by people who did not directly pay for or produce themselves. (Children might be considered a public good. Social Security as an example) Free rider problem- tendency for people to obtain public good when others produce the good The family as a social institution guided by social norms (rules); formed by social roles (e.g. wife); fits into the social structure (fundamental set of positions that organize society as a whole) history Shift from familial to labor market mode of production separated home & work; Change from rural to urban location separated family members; Introduction of public programs (education, pensions) gave more freedom to the family members (<Modernization Theory) Production Reproduction Consumption (self-sufficient family grow food raise animals build dwellings) Affective individualism Personal relationships based on emotional rewards and autonomy from the community Characteristics of American families 1776-1900 Reproduction+ Consumption (MW “separate spheres”: Men work for wages wife cared for home and children ; Buy goods and services instead of make) Characteristics of the private family 1900-present smaller public family role larger private family role 1930s the Great Depression Postponed marriage, childbearing, and divorce; Fathers lost authority during long periods of unemployment 1940s-1950s the Post-War Period Baby boom; adults married earlier kids than ever before; women began to enter workforce; the height of breadwinner-caregiver model was subsidized by economic prosperity and gov programs 1960s Women's Movement baby bust; postponed marriage; individualism; women work away from home

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