History Chp. 13 Notes.docx - Chapter 13 The Spread of Chinese Civilization Japan Korea and Vietnam Chapter Thesis Intro The sinification of Chinese

History Chp. 13 Notes.docx - Chapter 13 The Spread of...

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Chapter 13: The Spread of Chinese Civilization: Japan, Korea, and Vietnam 1 Chapter Thesis: The sinification of Chinese culture along with the desire to hold onto native customs helped influence the social and political views in Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. Intro Ly Van Phuc’s visit to pay homage to Daoguang emperor o Reminded emperor that Vietnamese had nurtured Chinese culture through treaty “On Distinguishing Barbarians” and calligraphy Viet royalty/officials fluent in Chinese and honored Confucian ideas of government/social organization Organized education around Chinese classics Displays reverence for Chinese civilization and uncertainty in the extent of its influence = interaction between China and other societies o Pattern of attraction and resistance Chinese contribution towards rise of societies in Japan, Korea, and Vietnam (basis of technological advances, model for social/military/political organization, influence on philosophical/religious thinking, commercial exchange) Uneasiness of Chinese domination (ex: rebellions by Korea and Vietnam under Chinese rule, division of Japanese over how much Chinese influence to incorporate into lives) o Chinese influence shown in agriculturally-based societies Tension between desire to borrow from China VS preservation of own language/social customs/culture shaped social/political dynamics throughout east Asia I. Japan: The Imperial Age (600s C.E.) Japanese court @ Nara seen as most advanced society in east Asia in politics/intellect/ and material culture o Native Shinto views of natural/supernatural world central to Japanese culture o (Taika, Nara, and Heian periods) peak of Chinese borrowing (646) introduction of Taika reforms by emperor to restore imperial administration along Chinese lines Mostly affected elite and people of the court Attempt to introduce Chinese writing, court etiquette (combined Chinese protocol with ancient Japanese ideas about politeness/decorum), Confucian ways, Chinese-style temples, Buddhist artistic styles Common people affected by building of Buddhist temples, new authority for aristocrats- turned-Confucian scholars looked to monks for cures/magic, combined worship of Buddhist gods with kami nature spirits of Japan
2 b. Crisis at Nara and the Shift to Heian (Kyoto) Failure of Taika reforms o Goal was to remake Japanese monarch into absolutist Chinese- like emperor Intended to created professional bureaucracy and peasant conscript army o Met by resistance from aristocrats and Buddhist monastic orders that dominated emperor/capital -> increase in power of Buddhist monks o Increasing demands of heads of monastic orders, influence threated throne -> check of growing influence of monastic orders at court (794) emperor Kammu established new capital @ Heian aka Kyoto o Buddhists forbidden to build monasteries, monks established monasteries in surrounding hills and reemerged as force at court as royal advisors o Abandoned Taika reforms- restoration of power of aristocrats

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