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Test 1-Formula Sheet

Test 1-Formula Sheet - Metalsmetallic elements nonlocalized...

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Metals –metallic elements, nonlocalized electrons (not bound to particular atoms), good conductors of elec & heat, not transparent to light, quite strong but deformable Ceramics -compounds between metallic and nonmetallic elements, oxides, nitrides, and carbides, composed of clay minerals, cement, & glass, insulators, hard but brittle. Polymers -plastic & rubber materials, organic compounds based on carbon, hydrogen, & nonmetallic elements, large molecular structures, low densities and flexible. Quantum mechanics -set of principles and laws that govern systems of atomic and subatomic entities. e- are permitted to have only specific values of energy. Atomic number – # of p+, atomic weight - # or P+ & neutrons. Electropositive (donors) & electronegative (acceptors) are separated by the following intermediate elements: B, Si, Ge, As, Te; At & Rn are nonmetals. Periodic table – is based on the e- configuration Quantum Numbers – the size, shape and spatial orientation of an e-‘s probability density are specified by 3 of these quantum #’s. Dictate the number of states within each subshell. ‘n’ = the distance of an e- from the nucleus (1, 2, 3, 4,..). ‘l’ = subshell, (s,p,d,f) shape of e- subshell. ‘m l ’ = # of energy states per subshell. ‘m s ’ = spin moment (+-1/2). Electron configuration – structure – represents the manner in which higher energy states are occupied. Valence electrons – those that occupy the outermost shell, participate in bonding between atoms to form atomic and molecular aggregates. Stable Configuration – the states within the outermost or valence electron shell are completely filled. Bonding Forces & Energies Bonding energy – represents the energy that would be required to separate these two atoms to an infinite separation. Equilibrium spacing - F A +F B =0 then equilibrium state exists. Distance between center of atoms, r 0 . Will counteract attempt to separate by attractive forces, but push together by repulsive forces. E net =E attractive +E repulsive Ionic bonding – compounds composed of metallic & nonmetallic elements. Atoms of a metallic element can easily give up valence e- to nonmetallic atoms. Sodium chloride (NaCl). Non-directional (magnitude is equal in all directions around ion). Large bonding energies(600-1500kJ/mol) hard, brittle, thermal insulators, ceramics Covalent bonding - sharing of e- between adjacent atoms. CH 4 , H 2 , Cl 2 , F 2 , HNO 3 , H 2 O. Directional (between specific atoms and may exist only in the direction between one atom and another that participate in e- sharing). Bonding energy <700kJ/mol, small molecules: gases @ ambient; larger molecules: solid polymers @ ambient. Poor energy conductors Metallic bonding - metals & alloys, (1-3 valence e-‘s), valence e- are not bound to a particular atom in solid and are free to drift throughout the metal, “electron-cloud”, non-directional, bonding energies (70-850kJ/mol), good conductors. Van der Waals- secondary bongs, weak (10kJ/mol), caused by dipoles, exists between all atoms or molecules, inert gases, stable e- structures, dipoles (separation of +- portions of an atom. Bonding results from + end of one dipole & - end of another.
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