–metallic elements, nonlocalized electrons (not bound to
particular atoms), good conductors of elec & heat, not
transparent to light, quite strong but deformable
-compounds between metallic and nonmetallic
elements, oxides, nitrides, and carbides, composed of
clay minerals, cement, & glass, insulators, hard but
-plastic & rubber materials, organic
compounds based on carbon, hydrogen, & nonmetallic
elements, large molecular structures, low densities and
-set of principles and laws
that govern systems of atomic and subatomic entities.
are permitted to have only specific values of energy.
– # of p+,
- # or P+ &
Electropositive (donors) & electronegative
(acceptors) are separated by the following intermediate
Periodic table –
is based on the e- configuration
Quantum Numbers –
the size, shape and spatial orientation of
an e-‘s probability density are specified by 3 of
these quantum #’s.
Dictate the number of states
within each subshell. ‘n’ = the distance of an e-
from the nucleus (1, 2, 3, 4,.
‘l’ = subshell,
(s,p,d,f) shape of e- subshell.
’ = # of energy
states per subshell.
’ = spin moment (+-1/2).
Electron configuration – structure –
the manner in which higher energy states are
Valence electrons – those that occupy the
outermost shell, participate in bonding between
atoms to form atomic and molecular aggregates.
Stable Configuration –
the states within the
outermost or valence electron shell are completely
Bonding energy –
represents the energy that would be required
to separate these two atoms to an infinite separation.
Equilibrium spacing -
=0 then equilibrium state exists.
Distance between center of atoms, r
Will counteract attempt to
separate by attractive forces, but push together by repulsive
Ionic bonding –
compounds composed of metallic &
Atoms of a metallic element can easily
give up valence e- to nonmetallic atoms.
Non-directional (magnitude is equal in all directions
Large bonding energies(600-1500kJ/mol) hard,
brittle, thermal insulators, ceramics
Covalent bonding -
sharing of e- between adjacent atoms. CH
Directional (between specific atoms and
may exist only in the direction between one atom and another
that participate in e- sharing).
Bonding energy <700kJ/mol,
small molecules: gases @ ambient; larger molecules: solid
polymers @ ambient.
Poor energy conductors
metals & alloys, (1-3 valence e-‘s), valence e- are not
bound to a particular atom in solid and are free to drift
throughout the metal, “electron-cloud”, non-directional, bonding
energies (70-850kJ/mol), good conductors.
Van der Waals-
secondary bongs, weak (10kJ/mol), caused by dipoles, exists