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11-13-Lecture - Electrical Properties ENGR 213 1 ELECTRICAL...

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1 Electrical Properties ENGR 213
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ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES - 1 response to electric field resistance (R) resistivity ( ρ ) units ohm-m = - m IR V = l AR = ρ
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ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES - 2 electrical conductivity ( σ ) units ( m) -1 = mho/m = S/m conductors [10 7 ( m) -1 ] semiconductors [10 -6 to 10 4 ( m) -1 ] insulators [10 -20 to 10 -10 ( m) -1 ] ρ σ 1 =
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Electrical Energy Transport - 1 motion of electrically charged particles free electrons holes (+e) - vacancies where electrons were ions e’s scattered by imperfections impurity, vacancy, interstitial, dislocation, vibration scattering reduces mobility μ
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Electrical Energy Transport - 2 total conduction depends on number of holes & electrons the amounts of charge they carry how mobile they are n and p metals: n >> p semicons: n ~ p h e e p e n μ μ σ + =
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Electron Energy Band Structure - 1 single atom has well-defined shell energy levels, e.g., 2s, 4p, 6f nearby atoms affect levels of valence electrons levels split into bands
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Electron Energy Band Structure - 2 valence band conduction band e- excitation = f (E g , T, impurity, defects) energy band gap (E g )
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Electron Energy Band Structure - 3 four structures at 0 deg K
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