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Final Review - Chapter 1 List six different property...

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Chapter 1 - List six different property classifications of materials that determine their applicability. Mechanical, electrical, thermal, magnetic, optical, and deteriorative - Cite the four components that are involved in the design, production and utilization of materials, and briefly describe the interrelationships between these components. The four components are Processing -> Structure -> Properties -> Performance and they have a linear relationship as shown. - Cite three criteria that are important in the materials selection process. 1. The in-service conditions the material will be subjected to. 2. The possible deterioration of material properties that may occur during service operation. 3. The economics of the material. - List the three primary classifications of solid materials, and then cite the distinctive chemical feature of each. Also, Note the other three types of materials and, for each, its distinctive features. Metals – good conductors of heat and electricity also strong but deformable Ceramics – insulative to heat and electricity, resistant to high temps, strong but brittle Polymers – large molecular structures, low densities and extremely flexible Composites – consist of more than one material, takes good properties from both Semiconductors – have electrical properties intermediate between conductors and insulators. Biomaterials – materials intended to be implanted into the body - Briefly define smart material/system. Explain the concept of nanotechnology as it applies to materials. Smart materials are materials that are able to sense changes in the environment and adapt to those changes automatically. Nanotechnology can allow the development of new materials by designing a material on the atomic level. Chapter 2 - Name the two atomic models and their differences. The Bohr atomic model and the wave-mechanical model. Instead of discrete orbitals as in the Bohr model, the wave model gives a probability of an electron being in a certain position(electron cloud). - Describe the important quantum-mechanical principle that relates to electron energies. The Pauli exclusion principle states that each electron state can hold no more than two electrons, which must have opposite spins.
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- Briefly describe ionic, covalent, metallic, hydrogen, and van der Waals bonds. Which materials exhibit each of these bonding types. Ionic bonding – atoms of a metallic element easily give up their electrons to the nonmetallic atoms, all the atoms acquire a stable or inert gas configuration, and they become electrically charged. Happens b/w metallic and nonmetallic elements. Ionic materials are hard and brittle and electrically and thermally insulative. Covalent Bonding – stable electron configurations are assumed by the sharing of electrons b/w adjacent atoms. Two atoms that are covalently bonded will each contribute at least one electron to the bond. Usually between to nonmetallic elements.
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