Midterm exam 01C

Midterm exam 01C - Mid-Term Exam(Vem W1 ENGR/PHIL 482-Fall 2001 Name Section TA Aggie Code of Honor(Signature PART ONE MULTIPLE CHOICE(2 POINTS

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Unformatted text preview: Mid-Term Exam (Vem W1 ENGR/PHIL 482--Fall, 2001 Name Section TA Aggie Code of Honor (Signature): PART ONE: MULTIPLE CHOICE (2 POINTS EACH) 1. In the first case that opens the textbook, William LeMessurier discovered that the 59-story building he designed might not be resistant to quartering (diagonal) winds in a sixteen-year storm. Part of the problem was that the original specification for fiill penetration welds had been disregarded, and the joints had been bolted instead. LeMessurier designed and implemented a "fix" for the problem and a possible disaster was averted. What is a factual issue in the case? a. How many stories did the building have? b. Was the building safe? 0. How should we define "safe"? d. Would the building have survived a sixteen-year storm? 2. What is a conceptual issue in the casein #1 ? a. How would a jury have defined safe? b. Would a jury have found the building safe? 0. How do we define "fault" as the term is relevant to the case? (1. Was the contractor who did not follow the specifications with regard to welding at fault? 3. What is an application issue in the case in #1? a. How would a jury have defined safe? b. Would a jury have found the building safe? c. How should we define "fault" as the term is relevant to the case? (1. Was the contractor who did not follow the specifications with regard to welding at fault? 4. What is a factual issue in the case in #1? a. What is a quartering wind? b. How is a "quartering wind" defined in the building code? 0. Will the storm coming towards New York have quartering winds? d. Would the storm coming towards New York be a sixteen-year storm? 5. The Endangered Species Act allows the federal government to prevent landowners from altering their property if doing so threatens an endangered species or its habitat. The US. Constitution requires that citizens must not be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law. Suppose a federal agency requires Mr. Jones to refrain from any farming on part of his property, or from altering it in any way, and that he says this is a "deprivation" of his property and thus unconstitutional. Mr. Jones is making a claim about a. An application issue. b. A factual issue. 0. A moral issue. d. A conceptual issue. 6. Referring to the above case, suppose Mr. Jones claims that mowing a field in the endangered species habitat area would not be "altering" his land. He is making a claim about a. An application issue. b. A factual issue. 0. A moral issue. d. A conceptual issue. 7. You are an engineer in sales trying to sell your product overseas in a foreign market. The leader of the foreign organization asks $10,000 as a condition for buying your product. In order to complete the sale, you offer instead to take $10,000 off the price of your product. If one were using casuistry (line drawing) to determining whether taking the money off the price of the product is a bribe and were constructing a POSITIVE PARADIGM (one in which the action is clearly NOT a bribe), which of the features should be on the list? a. The quality of the product is poor. b. The money taken off the price will be taken by the firm, not the individual. 0. The amount of money involved is very large. (1. Both a and b. 8. The Texas Farmer's Exchange Insurance Co. hired Attorney A to investigate a fire, after which Farmers' denied the claim. Then the insured sued the insurance company, using Attorney A. Farmers' objected, claiming that this broke the attorney/ client confidentiality that it had with Attorney A. The court ruled that Attorney A was acting as an investigator, not an attorney, when he worked for F armers' and was thus not bound by attorney/client confidentiality. In making the claim in the underlined passage, the court was making a. A conceptual claim. b. An application claim. c. A factual claim. d. A moral claim. 9. The British House of Lords legalized the creation of cloned human embryos for research purposes in January 2001. The embryos must not be allowed to develop beyond fourteen days. a. An application issue is whether a fourteen—day—old embryo is a human being. b. A conceptual issue in the case is whether "stem cells," developed during these early days of embryonic development, can change into cells for the various organs of the body. 0. A factual issue in the case is whether the research will actually produce any scientific knowledge that could not be obtained in other ways. d. Both a and c. 10. As Chairperson of the Board of Modest Mutual Fund, Carol Lawrence is considering whether to recommend a change in investment philosophy of the fund, which would allow the purchase of potentially more profitable but also more risky international stocks. In looking for a creative middle way a. Carol must decide how best to maximize utility. b. Carol must decide how best to balance rule and act utilitarian considerations. 0. Carol faces obligations both to be true to the traditional investment philosophy of the fund and to increase the profitability of the fund. (1. Carol faces obligations both to be true to the traditional investment philosophy of the fund and to be loyal to traditional investors who hold to the traditional investment philosophy. 11. Just before leaving office, President Clinton pardoned Marc Rich of 65 counts of tax fiaud and of running illegal oil deals with Iran during the hostage crisis. a. In asking whether the Golden Rule Test is passed, President Clinton should have asked whether every President could do the same thing under similar circumstances if he did it. b. In asking whether the Self-Defeating Test is passed, President Clinton should have asked whether he would be willing to be the recipient of a similar action in similar circumstances. 0. In asking whether the Self-Defeating Test is passed, President Clinton should have asked whether it would undermine his ability to do what he did if other Presidents acted similarly in similar circumstances. (1. In asking whether the Rights Test is violated, President Clinton should have asked whether the pardon violated the rights of anyone. If it violated any rights of any person, the action is forbidden by the Rights Test. 12. A strain of genetically modified rice is fortified with vitamins that populations in some underdeveloped countries need, but it has not been thoroughly tested and may have properties that are harmful to humans. _ a. The Self-Defeating Test would ask whether I would be willing to eat the rice if I were a resident of an underdeveloped country. b. An application of the Self—Defeating test would ask whether residents of underdeveloped countries are being used as means in any way to the development of the new strain of rice. If they are being used as means in any way, the Self-Defeating test is violated. c. A rule utilitarian would ask whether selling the rice to underdeveloped countries would produce more positive than negative utility. d. An act utilitarian would ask whether selling the rice to underdeveloped countries or not selling the rice, would produce the most utility, or at least the least negative utility. 13. During the Korean war, Capt. Black and his company found themselves on a hill surrounded by enemy soldiers and having to divert some of his men to guard 20 captured Chinese soldiers. He decided to execute the Chinese soldiers. If we applied a RULE utilitarian analysis to his situation, What would be the best rule to use? a. "It is morally permissible for combat troops to execute prisoners of war in a combat situation in which guarding them poses a threat to the survival of the troops." b. "It is morally permissible for Capt. Black to execute prisoners of war in a combat situation in which guarding them poses a threat to the survival of his troops." c. "If and only if it leads to greater utility, it is morally permissible for combat troops to execute prisoners of war in a combat situation in which guarding them poses a threat to the survival of the troops." d. "In war, it is morally permissible to do what promotes the greatest utility." 14. Several years ago, Michael Milken was convicted of insider trading of junk bonds. Which is the best statement of what we might conclude if we applied the Self-Defeating Test to his activity? a. If everyone traded on inside information, there would be no inside information, and the advantage based on the information would not exist. b. If everyone traded on inside information, the capitalist system would be damaged and everyone would be harmed. c. I wold not want you to have the advantage of insider trading, so I must not engage in insider trading myself. d. Insider trading is a violation of the law, and I do not want you to violate the law, so I must not Violate the law either. 15. Which of the following claims about paradigm cases is true? a. A test case is morally equivalent to a positive paradigm if it shares a greater number of features with the positive paradigm than it shares with the negative paradigm. b. If a paradigm case falling under a certain concept (a paradigm case of bribery, a paradigm case of extortion, etc.) is immoral, then any test case that falls under the same concept is also immoral. c. A paradigm case should be one about which you and most other people agree. (1. If two people agree about whether or not a paradigm case of an action is immoral (a paradigm case of bribery, of extortion, etc.), then they will agree about the morality of every test case that falls under the same concept. 16. You are in charge of designing a home appliance unit which will likely produce electromagnetic (EM) radiation. One concern you have is that the EM will interfere with various home electronic devices. Which of the following does NOT qualify as a creative-middle—way solution? a. Attach a warning label on the device indicating the presence of EM and its possible consequences. b. Design a shield around the electrical components in order to reduce interference. c. Use low radiation components in your design to limit interference. (1. Perform a controlled study to established he exact amount of EM radiation. 17. Which of the following is true? a. Whenever Rule Utilitarianism says that a particular action is immoral, Act Utilitarianism will also say that the action is immoral. b. According to Cost/Benefit Analysis, any action can be morally permissible if the benefit to the person performing that action is big enough. 0. Rule Utilitarianism takes into account the long-term consequences of an action, whereas act utilitarianism takes into account only the short-term consequences of an action. d. None of the above. 18. A "hard choice" is a. One that is difficult to carry out because of the possible harm to one's interests that might result. b. One where it is difficult to determine what to do, because there is some value one may not be able to honor, no matter what she does. c. One that is hard to carry out, because it is illegal. (1. One that is hard to carry out, because it is likely to receive the disapproval of the engineering community. 19. In Gilbane Gold, a creative middle way solution would have been a. To design an artificial wetland that would absorb the toxic materials. b. To alert the local press to the problem. 0. To resign. _ d. To increase the water released, so that the amount of toxins released would be within city regulations. 20. Denise is an engineer at a large construction firm. Her job is to specify rivets for the construction of a large apartment building. After some research and testing, she decides to use ACME rivets for the job. On the day after she orders the rivet, an ACME representative visits her and gives her a voucher for an all-expenses paid trip to the ACME Technical Forum in Jamaica. The four—day trip will include 18 classroom hours and a day-long tour of the coastline. In determining whether the gift is a bribe, some bribe-making features of the negative paradigm (where the trip is a bribe) that might be used in a line-drawing analysis would be: a. The fact that the gift is given after the decision was made. b. The fact that the person given the gift is the principal decision-maker. c. The fact that other engineers would be influenced by the gift d. Both b and c. 21. Denise is an engineer at a large construction firm. Her job is to specify rivets for the construction of a large apartment building. After some research and testing, she decides to use ACME rivets for the job. On the day after she orders the rivet, an ACME representative visits her and gives her a voucher for an all-expense—paid trip to the ACME Technical Forum in Jamaica. The four-day trip will include 18 classroom hours and a day-long tour of the coastline. In determining whether the gift is a bribe, some non-bribe-making features of the positive paradigm (where the trip is not a bribe) that might be used in a line-drawing analysis would be: a. The fact that the gift was given after the decision was made. b. The fact that a the person given the gift is the principal decision-maker. c. The fact that other engineers would be influenced by the gift. d. Both b and c. 22. Which of the following represents an ethical statement which is derived more characteristically from professional ethics rather than personal ethics? a. One should not perform abortions. b. One should not consume alcohol. c. One should not reveal information given in confidential relationship. (1. One should not engage in violence or support it in any way. 23. Kevin is the engineering manager for the county road commission. He must decide whether to widen Forest Drive, a narrow two—lane road, on which there have been several fatal accidents because cars have run into the trees beside the road. Widening the road will involve cutting down the trees. What is the BEST statement of the rule that a RULE utilitarian might use in analyzing the case? a. "In deciding whether to widen a road, one should act so as to promote the most overall utility." b. "In deciding whether to make road improvements, one should act so as to promote the most overall utility." c. "In making any decision, one should act so as to save the most lives, regardless of other considerations." (1. "In deciding whether to make any decision involving life, Kevin should act so as to save the most lives, regardless of other considerations." 24. Brown County needs a new dump, which can be placed either in Goldsville (2 million inhabitants) or Bluefield (1000 inhabitants). The act utilitarian a. Must balance the utility of placing the dump in Bluefield with the question whether placing it there is just, because the sewage treatment plant has just been placed in Bluefield. b. Must consider the question where the dump should be placed from the standpoint of everyone affected by the action. c. Must ask what the consequences would be if engineers in general placed undesirable projects in small towns. d. All of the above. 25. Suppose a utilitarian analysis of Option A and Option B concludes that equal utility is produced by Option A and Option B. Then Option A is a. Morally permissible. b. Morally supererogatory. c. Morally impermissible. d. Morally obligatory. 26. The National Society of Professional Engineers (N SPE) "Code of Ethics for Engineers" requires engineers to hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public in the performance of their professional duties. What does it say engineers should do when their professional judgment is overruled under circumstances where the safety, health, property and welfare of the public are endangered? a. Resign their position or terminate their contract with a client. b. Alert the public to the danger. c. Notify their professional society. (1. Notify their client or employer or other appropriate authority. 27. Which statement best characterizes the difference between utilitarian and RP morality? a. Utilitarianism is concerned with the "audience" of an action, whereas RP morality is not. b. Utilitarianism holds that rights may be violated in order to maximize utility, whereas RP morality holds that rights may never be violated or infringed. 0. RP morality holds there are some things you can't do to a person, no matter how much it will benefit someone else, whereas utilitarianism would deny this limitation. (1. Both a and b. 28. As we interpreted the requirement to "treat others as ends in themselves and not merely as a means to some other end," it implies that a. We should not override a person's moral agency. b. We should never treat a person as a means in any way. 0. We should act to promote the ends or goals that others set for themselves. (1. We should act so as to promote the ends or goals of as many people as possible. 29. Which of the following is a statement of a negative right or a statement about the nature of negative rights? a. They involve the obligations we have to provide for each other the essential conditions for realizing their moral agency, such as a an education. b. They involve the protection morality places around the free agency of the individual, so that others do not limit that free agency. 0. They involve goods we cannot live without, such as a minimal standard of living. (1. Both a and b. 30. In the hierarchy of rightslisted in the book and the notes, what is the criterion for generating the second tier of rights? a. The basic rights necessary for well-being. b. The rights necessary to increase one's level of well—being. c. The rights necessary to protect the level of well-being one already has. (1. The rights necessary to protect one's well-being from harm from others. 31. Diane designs sports cars. She has designed a turbocharger that has a low reliability record but produces spectacular acceleration. Diane loves faSt cars and tends to be a high-risk person. If she applies the Golden Rule to her design to determine whether it would be morally permissible, when would it most clearly pass the test? a. If she were in the recipient's situation b. If she were in the recipient's situation with the recipient's freely-chosen values 0. If she were in the recipient's situation with her values d. If she were in the recipient's situation with the recipient's reasonable and morally permissible values 32. In the case that opens the book, Mr. LeMessurier decided to alert authorities to a flaw in the office tower he designed that would not adequately protect the building from quartering (diagonal) winds. If he asked whether he could with moral permissibility FAIL to notify authorities of this flaw, according to the Self-Defeating Test, what would his question be? a. If all engineers refused to inform authorities of a problem such as this, could I do it? b. If all engineers refused to inform authorities of a problem such as this, would it benefit the public? 0. Would I want all engineers to fail to inform authorities of a problem such as this? d. If all engineers failed to inform authorities of a problem such as this, would I find it acceptable? 33. As discussed in the textbook, the universalizability principle holds that a. Whatever is right (or wrong) in one situation is right (or wrong) in any relevantly similar situation. b. I should ask what I should do if I am the "recipient" of my own action. c. I should ask what would be the result if everyone did what I am doing. (1. I should ask whether I could do what I am doing if everyone did it. 34. In a case discussed in the textbook, Amanda signs an agreement with Company A that obligates her not to reveal its trade secrets. Later she moves to Company B, where she finds a use for some ideas she conceived while at Company A. She never developed the ideas into an industrial process at Company A, and Company B is not in competition with Company A. What features would be in the positive paradigm (clearly acceptable) in a line-drawing analysis? a. Permission granted by Company A to use the ideas. b. Company A and Company B not competitors. 0. Both a and b. d. Amanda made heavy use of Company B's lab equipment. 35. Which of the following are true statements about cost/benefit analysis? a. It does not assume economic measures override all others. b. It is often very difficult to measure real costs and benefits. 0. It takes into account the unequal distribution of costs and benefits. (1. Both a and b. PART T W0: ESSAY QUESTION (30 points, no more than 2 pages) Relocation of Union Pacific Railroad The main line of the UPR runs through Bryan and College Station, carrying some 25-30 trains daily (expected to increase to 50) on a north-south route . The route is Vital to state, regional and national agricultural, manufacturing and commercial interests. Some local industries rely on access to this railroad. For example, aggregate from Travis county quarries is shipped to local firms who provide this rock for construction needs. Also, coal from Wyoming is shipped to electricity producers south of College Station who supply regional electricity needs. The tracks run through the twin cities of Bryan and College Station, and also bisect the campus of Texas A&M University. In fact, the name College Station comes form the railroad stop that originally served Texas A&M College. Because of the growth of the University and the two cities, a conflict of increasing importance is developing between the railroad operations and the cities and university. It is likely that a fatal accident will result from pedestrians crossing the tracks or from train/ automobile collisions at one of the many at-grade crossings. Other hazards include the possibility of derailments and hazardous materials spills. Some citizens advocate relocating the main tracks. Engineering feasibility studies have identified several alternate routes bypassing the cities to the West, but the cost of relocation is high: $100-$200 million, depending on the route selected. Costs will be borne in a manner to be determined by the two cities, the university, Brazos County, the State Department of Transportation, the US Department of Transportation, and the Union Pacific Railroad. The routes being considered run through mostly rural countryside, much of which is farmland where cotton and grain is raised. All routes will result in the need to take farmland and some residences may have to be removed. A number of rural residents will find themselves near the new right-of-way, which will result in a nuisance and increased risk for these individuals. Residents in these rural areas are organizing to oppose relocation of the railroad. Some proposed routes pass through neighboring Burleson County, and the Burleson County Farm Bureau recently voted to ask those considering the relocation to “please disconsider Burleson County .” You are an engineer on a committee charged with making a recommendation as to whether the railroad should be moved. According to the rights test, should the recommend that the railroad be moved? Use the following outline in answering this question. UP TO 5 POINTS WILL BE DEDUCTED FOR BAD WRITING. l. (3 points) Identify the conflicting obligations, values and interests. 2. (2 points) Formulate the alternative actions (consider only two). 3. (3 points) Determine the audience for the analysis. 4. (10 points) List the rights violated or infringed by each action and the level of rights involved. 5. (12 points) Choose the action that involves the least serious rights violations/infiingements. EXPLAIN and JUSTIFY your conclusions here. ...
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This test prep was uploaded on 03/26/2008 for the course PHIL 482 taught by Professor Harris during the Fall '02 term at Texas A&M.

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Midterm exam 01C - Mid-Term Exam(Vem W1 ENGR/PHIL 482-Fall 2001 Name Section TA Aggie Code of Honor(Signature PART ONE MULTIPLE CHOICE(2 POINTS

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