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Chapter1Bno - African American Women Health Issues Desiree...

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Unformatted text preview: African American Women Health Issues Desiree Rivers, MSPH Daphne Watkins, B.A. Introduction Instructors Desiree Rivers, MSPH Daphne Watkins, B.A. * Doctoral Students in Health Education and Promotion, Texas A&M University Lecture Outline History of the population Demographics Overview of the status of Black health Major diseases in Black women Cardiovascular disease Cancer Diabetes HIV/AIDS Infant mortality Mental Health Issues Summary History of Blacks Blacks in the U.S. are made up of Africans African Caribbean immigrants African Americans (Women of Color Health Data Book, National Institutes of Health, Office of Research on Women's Health, 2002.) Demographics More than.... 32 million Black Americans in the U.S (more than 12% of population) half (17 millions) of all Black Americans are female half of all Black Americans live in the 13 southern states (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia) Overview status of Black health Blacks have more undetected diseases, higher disease and illness rates, more chronic conditions, and shorter life expectancies than Whites Morbidity and Mortality rates for blacks from many conditions (cancer, HIV/AIDS, pneumonia, homicide) exceed those for Whites These findings exist although Black females are less likely than white females to report risk behaviors Three factors that have the greatest influence on the health of Black Americans Genetics Poverty Racism Disclaimer: These three factors have been identified; however, the interactive mechanisms have not been specified. Black women, specifically multiple roles Manage Parent Care-giver Spouse Employee Thus, they are in difficult positions when attempting to balance their own health with their other obligations Major Diseases in Black Women Cardiovascular disease Cancer Diabetes HIV/AIDS Infant mortality Cardiovascular Disease Risk factors Diabetes Hypertension High cholesterol Obesity Lack of exercise Smoking Family history of cardiovascular disease (http://www.blackwomenshealth.com) Cardiovascular Disease What is it? Also known as "heart disease", it is a term that can refer to a variety of ailments ranging from heart attacks, chest pain (angina), congestive heart failure (CHF), arrhythmias (irregular, fast, or slow heart beat), and etc. Previously a "man's disease" It is the number one killer of American women and it is estimated that 370,000 women in the United States die from heart disease each year. (http://www.blackwomenshealth.com) Cardiovascular Disease One of the leading causes of death for Black women They have a higher mortality and morbidity than Black men and White women under the age of 55. In the age group 25-44, Black women have 2.5 times the coronary heart disease mortality risk of white women. (http://www.blackwomenshealth.com) Cancer The are top two cancer killers of Black women Breast Cancer (most common among ALL American women) and Cancers of the Lung and Bronchus (Women of Color Health Data Book, National Institutes of Health, Office of Research on Women's Health, 2002.) Breast Cancer What is it? Breast cancer is an abnormal growth of cells within the breast and is referred to as a malignant tumor. (http://www.blackwomenshealth.com) Breast Cancer Risk Factors Age Gender Family history of breast cancer Hormones Nutrition Environmental factors Breast Cancer In fact, 1 in 8 women will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. According to a National Cancer Institute study, African American women were 2.2 times more likely to die from breast cancer than their White counterparts. The poorer outcomes with regard to breast cancer in African American women have been historically attributed to the more advanced stage of disease at the time of presentation for medical attention. (http://www.blackwomenshealth.com) Cancers of the Lung and Bronchus What is it? Cancers that begin in the lungs are divided into two major types, non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer, depending on how the cells look under a microscope. Each type of lung cancer grows and spreads in different ways and is treated differently. (http://www.cancer.gov/cancerinfo/wyntk/lung) Cancers of the Lung and Bronchus Risk Factors Users of tobacco Environmental exposure to pollutants Radon Asbestos Family history Cancers of the Lung and Bronchus Cancers of the Lung and Bronchus The best way to prevent lung cancer is to quit, or never start, smoking. Targeted advertising to minority groups by the tobacco industries may be associated with current cigarette smoking trends Largest percentage of Black females who smoke are between 30 and 64 years of age Poor Black (and White) women tend to smoke more than their wealthier counterparts (http://www.cancer.gov/cancerinfo/wyntk/lung) Cancers of the Lung and Bronchus Dangerous jobs may expose Blacks to certain cancers to a much greater extent than Whites Black women are more likely than White women to work in hazardous jobs Hazards in their living environments also detract from the health of Black Americans EPA found that Blacks suffered higher rates of lung cancer and that Blacks have greater exposure to poor air quality (http://www.cancer.gov/cancerinfo/wyntk/lung) Diabetes What is it? Diabetes, commonly referred to as "sugar diabetes," is a condition in which the body is unable to properly process the carbohydrates (sugars and starches) we eat. It is characterized by high levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood. (http://www.cancer.gov/cancerinfo/wyntk/lung) Diabetes Risk Factors Family history Lack of exercise Obesity Diet Diabetes Studies have shown that diabetes is 33 percent more common among African Americans than Whites, and that the highest rates are among African American women. Older women are more likely to have diabetes than middle-aged women Health outcomes of Blacks (both women and men) are far worse than those of Whites Blacks are more likely to be blinded, become amputees, develop end-stage renal impairment, and die from diabetes (Women of Color Health Data Book, National Institutes of Health, Office of Research on Women's Health, 2002.) Diabetes Types of Diabetes Type I Type II Responsible for 90-95% of the diabetes in African Americans Gestational Gestational diabetes is 80 percent more common in African Americans than Whites (http://www.cancer.gov/cancerinfo/wyntk/lung) HIV/AIDS What HIV is it? is the virus (infection) that causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) AIDS is a late stage of HIV infection, and is present when the body becomes overpowered by one or more opportunistic infections. (http://www.cancer.gov/cancerinfo/wyntk/lung) HIV/AIDS Methods Having of Transmission unprotected (without a condom) sex with someone who has HIV Sharing needles and/or syringes used in IDU (injection drug use) A pregnant woman with HIV can give it to her baby during childbirth or while breastfeeding (this does not always happen, however) Blood transfusions. Since 1985, however, people have seldom received HIV from an infusion of blood or blood-products because better safeguards are practiced against such occurrences (Women of Color Health Data Book, National Institutes of Health, Office of Research on Women's Health, 2002.) HIV/AIDS Although Black women account for 12% of all women, they account for 68% of all cases of HIV infection and 56% of all cases of AIDS reported among women between 1981 and 1996. Among women the two main methods of transmission are drug use and heterosexual contact. Black women may be more vulnerable than White women to heterosexual transmission through sex with bisexual men (http://www.cancer.gov/cancerinfo/wyntk/lung) HIV/AIDS HIV infection is now the 3rd leading cause of death in all women ages 25-44 years and the leading cause of death among Black women in this age group Among Black women in households, the added stress of HIV/AIDS can have dramatic effects on the family Infant Mortality What is it? Death under one year of age Reflects the standard of living of a population as well as the health of the mother (Women of Color Health Data Book, National Institutes of Health, Office of Research on Women's Health, 2002.) Infant Mortality Risk Factors Health of the mother Health behavior of mother Lack of prenatal care Premature delivery Low birth weight Infant Mortality For Black women between 1989 and 1991 IMR were higher 17 deaths per 1,000 live births (more than twice the rate for Whites) Black women with college degrees had higher rates of IM as compared to White women with less education Mortality rates of infants born to Black mothers exceed mortality rates of infants born to other mothers whether or not these women report drinking during pregnancy (Women of Color Health Data Book, National Institutes of Health, Office of Research on Women's Health, 2002.) Mental Health Multiple stressors Race/ethnicity Rooted in prejudices of individuals, institutions, policies & practices Complex factors Poverty Social Support Depression Occupation-related stress Conflicts, isolation, alienation Mental Health Poverty Increased Shift mobility = increased stress from Economic perspective -> emotional, interpersonal and community perspective Mental Health Social Support stress Increased Give up communities that offer group ID, shared group values and behaviors Mobility = adjustment Mental Health Occupational-related "African American women work harder and longer hours, use more coping efforts and reap fewer rewards for their efforts" (Gary, 1996). Future Research There is limited research in minority populations (especially Black women), so more work needs to be done Higher quality data from Black women needs to be collected Young black women need to be encouraged to participate in research There is a need for more facilities that serve people of color There is a need for minority physicians and providers References http://www.blackwomenshealth.com http://www.cancer.gov/cancerinfo/wyntk/lung Women of Color Health Data Book, National Institutes of Health, Office of Research on Women's Health, 2002. ...
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