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Unformatted text preview: Developing a Healthy Lifestyle Beth McNeill M.S. Lecturer Department of Health and Kinesiology Texas A&M University A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity What is Healthy? Exogenous factors Endogenous factors Life Expectancy http://www.health.gov/healthypeople Leading Causes of Death in Women Heart Disease Cancer Stroke Unintentional Injuries Diabetes COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) Emphysema Chronic bronchitis Personal Wellness aware of and Wellness is an active process of becoming making choices toward a more successful existence. Physical Intellectual Emotional Wellness Spiritual Occupational http://www.nationalwellness.org/ Social PERSONAL WELLNESS Social Dimension Awareness of common welfare of community Strives to live in harmony with fellow human beings PERSONAL WELLNESS Occupational Dimension Career choices are consistent with personal values interest and beliefs Gratification comes from being involved in paid and unpaid activities that use your skills and talents. PERSONAL WELLNESS Spiritual Dimension Seeking meaningfulness and purpose to human existence To ask and search for answers to the question, WHY? Developing actions that are consistent with beliefs PERSONAL WELLNESS Physical Dimension Developing physical ability Building a strong body Practicing of good nutritional habits Recognizing changes in normal body functioning that may indicate illness PERSONAL WELLNESS Intellectual Dimension Using self-directed behavior that challenges and stretches the mind Uses resources to develop skills Developing problem-solving abilities and creativity PERSONAL WELLNESS Emotional Dimension Awareness and acceptance of one's own feelings Developing a positive enthusiastic feeling about life Ability to develop inter-personal relationships with others Ability to express emotions freely Developing an attitude of optimism WORLD WELLNESS Efforts made to contribute to the wellness of the world in 6 key areas Maintaining/improving air quality Maintaining/improving water quality Saving energy & recycling Growing & saving food Preventing/reducing toxins and pollutants Preserving/enhancing nature Health Interventions Continuum Health Interventions Continuum (Primary prevention) (Secondary prevention) (Tertiary prevention) Education Prevention Treatment Wellness Healthy Comfort Discomfort Illness Disease Learning and Behavior Positive reinforcer--reward behavior increasing the likelihood of reoccurrence Negative reinforcer--removes something uncomfortable Punishment--adds something uncomfortable Hierarchy of Needs Theories & Models of Behavior Change Field Theory Health Belief Model (HBM) Transtheoretical Model Theory of Reasoned Action Theory of Planned Action Theory of Personal Investment Self-Efficacy Social Cognitive Theory Theories & Models of Behavior Change: Field Theory Driving (change) forces--pressure the individual to move toward the goal Resisting forces-- push against change and hinder progress Force Field Analysis Theories & Models of Behavior Change: Health Belief Model Perceived severity---the belief that a health problem is serious Perceived threat---the belief that one is susceptible to the problem Perceived benefit---the belief that changing one's behavior will reduce the threat Perceived barriers---a perception of the obstacles to changing one's behavior Self efficacy---the belief that one has the ability to change one's behavior Theories & Models of Behavior Change: Transtheoretical Model Precontemplation---not thinking about changing behavior Contemplation---thinking about changing behavior in the near future Decision---making a plan to change behavior Action---implementing the plan to change behavior Maintenance---continuation of behavior change Theories & Models of Behavior Change: Reasoned Action Theories & Models of Behavior Change: Theory of Planned Behavior Theories & Models of Behavior Change: Theory of Personal Investment Personal incentives Thoughts about self Perceived options available Theories & Models of Behavior Change: Social Cognitive & Self Efficacy Reinforcement---Reinforcements are either positive or negative consequences of a behavior. Behavior capability---In order for a change to take place, one must learn what to do to change and how to do it. Expectancies---The value one places on the expected result. If the result is important to the person, the behavior change that will yield the result is more likely to happen. Self efficacy---Belief in one's ability to successfully change one's behavior. Self efficacy is connected with another construct called "outcome expectations." These are the benefits one expects to receive by changing one's behavior. Reciprocal determinism---The dynamic relationship between the individual and the environment Planning Lifestyle Change Personal Inventory--evaluate personal health habits Helpful Attitude--set realistic goals and generate a positive attitude Plan of ActionFormulate intervention strategies Evaluate progress Behavior Contract-written agreement outlining program of behavior change Developing a Healthy Lifestyle A continuous process that works towards the goal of achieving optimal wellness. Works Cited http://www2.stockton.edu/wellness/dimensions. html http://www.medizinethik.ch/publik/health_illness.htm http://healthpromotionadvocates.org/resources/ definitions.htm http://www.health.gov/healthypeople http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/ FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/maslow.htm Works Cited http://home.att.net/~nickols/changing.htm http://www.indiana.edu/~aids/fact/fact3.html http://www.ciadvertising.org/studies/student/97 _fall/practitioner/belding/theory.html#wh http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/method s_ajzen_theory_planned_behaviour.html Questions All of the following are dimensions of health EXCEPT: A. Spiritual B. Financial C. Emotional D. Physical E. All of these are dimensions of health ANSWER: B 1. 2. Helping others to get a job, teaching job skills to others and recycling products would build a persons ______wellness. A. Occupational B. Intellectual C. Social D. Emotional E. physical ANSWER: a QUESTIONS 3. While at the doctors office for her yearly physical, Janie picked up a pamphlet on self-breast exam. The pamphlet would be an example of _____ on the health intervention continuum. A. primary prevention B. secondary prevention C. tertiary prevention D. early prevention ANSWER: A 4 When Tara takes her asthma medication daily she can breathe easily. When Tara forgets to take it, she suffers from symptoms such as shortness of breath and headaches. The absence of symptoms Tara experiences when taking her medication act a s_______ A. positive reinforcement B. negative reinforcement C. punishment reinforcement D. encouraged reinforcement ANSWER: B QUESTIONS: Match the theory/ model to its description 6. Belief that one can successfully change behavior. 7. Focuses on attitude, subjective norm and the individuals motivation to comply 8. Behavior change is influenced by the environment, personal factors (behavioral capacity, expectancies, belief that change can happen, and aspects of the behavior itself (reciprocal determinism) 9. Focuses on attitude, subjective norm and the individuals motivation to comply and the perceived ease of difficulty of performing the behavior. 10. Change will occur in stages: precontemplation, contemplation, action, maintenance and termination. 11. Driving forces and restraining forces work to control behavior change. ANSWERS 5. AC 6. D 8. AD 9. E 10. C 11. A A. Field Theory B. Health Belief Model C. Transtheoretical Model D. Theory of Reasoned Action E. Theory of Planned Action (Behavior) AB. Theory of Personal Investment AC. Self-efficacy AD. Social Cognitive Theory QUESTIONS 12. According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the need for _____ must be met before the need for love. A. Esteem B. Self-Actualization C. Safety D. Joy ANSWER: C 13. All of the following are suggested elements needed to plan a lifestyle change EXCEPT A. Personal Inventory B. Helpful attitude C. Plan of Action D. Behavioral contract E. All of the above function in planning a lifestyle change ANSWER: E Questions 14. Statistically,______ women have the longest life expectancy. A. African American B. Hispanic C. Asian pacific islander D. Native American E. Caucasian ANSWER: E 15. A woman's emotional, attitudinal and mental state make up her ____. A. Psyche B. Soma C. Spirit D. All of these ANSWER: A QUESTIONS 16. The leading cause of death for all women is A. COPD B. Diabetes C. Unintentional Injuries D. Cancer E. Cardiovascular disease ANSWER: E 17. When a persons actions reflect their beliefs they have a well developed ____ dimension. A. Emotional B. Social C. Spiritual D. Physical E. Intellectual ANSWER: C QUESTIONS: True (A) or False (B) 18. Recycling and growing one's own food is an example of practicing world wellness. 19. According to the model of epidemiology, disease prevention includes efforts to strengthen the relationship between the host, agent & environment of a diseased person. 20. Formulating intervention strategies and evaluating ones progress are part of one's personal inventory when planning a lifestyle change. ANSWER 18. A 19. B 20. B ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/26/2008 for the course HLTH 700 taught by Professor Chaney during the Fall '05 term at Texas A&M.
- Fall '05