Chapter6no - Managing the Stress of Life Chapter 6...

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Unformatted text preview: Managing the Stress of Life Chapter 6 Catherine N. Rasberry, M.S. Objectives Describe the anatomy and physiology of stress. Identify the warning signs of too much stress. Summarize the different types of life stressors. Describe the impact of stress on women. Demonstrate effective coping strategies for stress management. Concepts of Stress Stress the body's response to demands Stressor the demand itself Stress cannot (and should not) be completely avoided (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Social Psychological Psychosocial Biochemical Philosophical Stress and Perception Perception is a key factor in your response to a stressor Help yourself by... Having realistic expectations of yourself Adjust demands of a situation as necessary Prioritize (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Positive versus Negative Stress Eustress constructive stress Distress debilitating or excessive stress Try to maintain a level of optimal stress and avoid reaching a point of maximum stress (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) The Stress Response FightorFlight Response General Adaptation Syndrome Endocrine System Anatomy and Physiology of Stress Autonomic Nervous System (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Fight-or-Flight Response Your body's natural response to a perceived danger Physiological changes Degree of response will vary according to perception of the stressor (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Blood vessel constriction (forces blood to heart and lungs) Increased heart rate and respiration Pupil dilation Adrenalin rush General Adaptation Syndrome A specific pattern of responses that your body experiences as a reaction to life demands or threats Three Stages: (1) (2) (3) Alarm reaction Stress resistance Stress Exhaustion (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Anatomy and Physiology of Stress Message sent to cerebral cortex Thalamus sorts the information, decides that an event is stressful in nature, and it is then perceived as a stressor. The hypothalamus is stimulated and the endocrine system and the autonomic nervous system are activated. (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Endocrine System Hypothalamus initiates a chain reaction of hormone release Eventually leads to: Increased blood volume and blood pressure Increased metabolic rate (in response to stress) Increased glucose circulation (major source of energy for the body) (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Autonomic Nervous System Stimulates the adrenal glands to cause the release of: Epinephrine Norepinephrine Increases O2 consumption Relaxes digestive system muscles Increases CHO metabolism Dilates arterials in heart & skeletal muscles Increases HR & blood volume Decreases blood clotting time Increases blood pressure & HR (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Distress and the Body: Stress and Disease Psychosomatic disorders Immune system vulnerability Ex: tension and migraine headaches; muscle pain specific to the neck, back, or shoulders; insomnia; anxiety attacks; depression; digestive disorders; cardiovascular disorders; pancreatic disorders Less capable of fighting off illness and disease (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Distress and the Body: Stress and Disease Stress Amenorrhea Migraine Menstruation stops because of physical or mental stress Often described as an intense pulsing or throbbing pain in one area of the head Various factors can trigger a migraine (including stress) (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Stress and Pregnancy Maternal stress can be harmful for both expectant mothers and the babies they are carrying. High stress levels may increase the risk of preterm labor, low infant birth weight, labor and delivery complications, and miscarriage (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Stress and Lifestyle Major life events College stress Financial crisis, family death, breakup New environment, parents' expectations, faculty demands, grades, costs of school, jobs, concerns of nontraditional students Losing things, family health, lines, traffic, roommates Little stressors can elevate stress significantly (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Daily life hassles Impact of Multiple Roles Today's women are expected to play multiple roles (daughter, sibling, spouse, mother, boss, employee, pet owner, friend, neighbor, social volunteer, hobbyist) This can create major strain "The hurried woman syndrome" (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Destructive Qualities of Stress Violence Increased irritability Health problems Stress, anxiety, and depression have been found to be among the most frequently reported health problems for women. (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Multicultural Issues Spiritual beliefs Racial issues Age factors Ability to acculturate (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Financial Stress Many women must work (and often at more than one job) to make ends meet Must provide: Shopping Housing, transportation, food, & clothes for themselves and family (children) More women than men shop for relaxation (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Impact of Technology Expected to be always available (phone, email, fax, voice mail, answering machines, etc.) Expected to meet shorter deadlines as a result of more consistent communication and access to electronic resources (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) The Workforce, Women, & Stress Many women's jobs offer lower pay, fewer opportunities for advancement, and have less gains from accumulated experience and authority Women employed fulltime earn about 2/3 as much as men. Women are more than twice as likely as men to work in parttime jobs. Women are often expected to be primary caregivers to their children. (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Employment and Health Employed women are physically healthier than nonemployed women, and participation in the labor force improves health over time. Women may face problematic stereotypes (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Environmental Stress Overcrowding Chemical toxins and pollutants Noise pollution Lacking a feeling of safety (esp. in one's neighborhood) (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Stress and Trauma Individuals who become victims frequently experience severe stress Manifestations: Can be immediate or delayed Can be brief or last for years Heightened startle and fear responses Anxiety and panic attacks Distancing from friends and family Avoidance of strangers or crowded places (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Clinical Disorders Caused By Stress or Trauma Panic attack Agoraphobia Specific phobia Social phobia Obsessivecompulsive disorder Posttraumatic stress disorder Acute stress disorder Generalized anxiety disorder Coping Skills Your Thoughts Nutrition Herbs Massage & Reflexology Acupressure & Acupuncture Exercise Time Management Exercise Time Management Body Awareness Relaxation Exercises Biofeedback Meditation Yoga Proper Breathing (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Your Thoughts You may make a judgment about an event that may impact how much stress you will experience as a result of that event. Techniques: Cognitive appraisal Thought stopping Positive affirmations (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Nutrition Maintaining a wellbalanced and nutritious eating pattern is vital for maintaining health and wellbeing and for countering the ill effects of stress. Certain substances can contribute to stress Overeating or undereating Vitamins Water (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Herbs Many herbs have healing and soothing effects on the nervous system Can be used in: Baths Herbal teas Aromatherapy (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Massage and Reflexology Massage Reflexology Systematically stroking, kneading, and pressing the soft tissues of the entire body to induce a state of total relaxation Use of compression massage on designated areas on the hands and feet (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Acupressure and Acupuncture Acupressure Acupuncture Slow, gradual finger pressure is applied to designated sites on the body that correspond with neural receptor sites Utilizes fine needles inserted into acupressure points to stimulate relaxation and healing (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Exercise Very effective Allows us to release pentup anxiety and to stimulate and flush out the body's systems through movement. (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Time Management Plan Prioritize Structure (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Body Awareness Your body will let you know when it is getting too stressed. Pay attention. Forehead Jaw Neck and shoulders (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Relaxation Exercises Designed to calm the body, mind, and emotions Can usually be done in 15 minutes or less Types: Progressive relaxation Autogenic phrases Relaxation response Quieting reflex (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Biofeedback Use of electronic equipment to monitor the physiological state of the body while the individual learns techniques to voluntarily regulated the body's systems and reduce unwanted symptoms. Noninvasive and painless (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Meditation Common technique used to facilitate feelings of personal balance and harmony, relaxation, and increased awareness of oneself and one's environment. Several types of meditation Guided exercise or clearing of the mind Healing meditation Tai Chi (meditation of movement) (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Yoga The practice of body postures and poses to improve health by bringing the body into balance and reducing stress and tension Techniques range from simple to complex Appropriate for persons of varying mobility and age (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Proper Breathing Breathing is affected by emotional and physiological demands on the body Diaphragmatic (or abdominal) breathing is healthy. Breathing training (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Conclusion The goal of stress management is not to completely eliminate stress Stress management should not make life harder and more stressful, it should make life easier. (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/26/2008 for the course HLTH 700 taught by Professor Chaney during the Fall '05 term at Texas A&M.

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