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Chapter7ano - Eating Disorders Karin Corriere Graduate...

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Unformatted text preview: Eating Disorders Karin Corriere Graduate Assistant Texas A&M University Objectives What is an eating disorder What causes an eating disorder Who is affecting by eating disorders Discussion of the three most common eating disorders--anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and bingeeatingincluding warning signs, medical complications and treatment What you should do if you think a friend may have an eating disorder What is an Eating Disorder? Eating disorders include a range of conditions that involve an obsession with food, weight and appearance to the degree that a person's health, relationships and daily activities are adversely affected They are often symptoms of a bigger problem-- often develop as a way of coping with emotional pain, conflicts related to separation, low self esteem, depression, stress or trauma What Causes Eating Disorders? Stressful life situations accompanied by a lack of coping skills Sensitivity to changes in life Sensitivity to separation from family Sociocultural factors--messages about weight and appearance from the media Family dynamics Trauma Who is affected by eating disorders? While commonly affecting young women, eating disorders are widespread and can impact people of all ages and sexes. It is estimated that several million people in the United States suffer from an eating disorder and the statistics are growing The number of men with an eating disorder has more than doubled in the past ten years--still only represent 515 percent of people with anorexia or bulimia Anorexia Nervosa Usually begins in the teen years 9095% who suffer are women--one of the most common psychiatric illnesses among girls and women Anorectics lose the ability to see their body image correctly--have an intense fear of gaining weight or being fat even though the person may be underweight Diagnostic Criteria for Anorexia Nervosa 1. Refusal to maintain body weight at a minimal normal weight for age and height 2. Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, even though underweight 3. Distortion in the way in which one's body weight, size or shape is viewed 4. In women, the absence of at lease three consecutive menstrual cycles when these would otherwise be expected to occur. Diagnostic and Statistical Method of Mental Disorders, Volume IV Warning Signs Drastic weight loss Refusal to eat particular foods Leads to a progression of restricting foods Will restrict whole categories of foods Feeling fat and commenting on size Anxiety about gaining weight Food rituals (excessive chewing, arranging food on the place in a certain order) Primary concern in life is weight loss, diets, body image, control over food Refusal or avoidance of meal times Health Problems Muscle weakness and loss Dry skin, loss of hair and dryness, growth of downy hair on body Fatigue, overall weakness and fainting Slow or abnormal heart rate, low blood pressure, increase in heart failure Reduction in bone density, osteoporosis Treatment The firs step is to restore a healthful food intake-- this takes place in a clinical setting to insure that patient is indeed consuming the food given to him/her Psychological therapy is also used to help the patient gain a sense of control over his/her life In order to heal, the anorexic must reject the sense of accomplishment that accompanies the dramatic weight loss. Bulimia Nervosa Most common eating disorder--at least two to three times more common than anorexia Approximately 80% of those affected are female 12% of adolescence and young women are affected Affects 4 to 5 percent of female college students Due to the binging and purging, people with bulimia tend to be at a more weight than anorexics Diagnostic Criteria for Bulimia 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Recurrent episodes of binge eating (rapid consumption of large amounts of food in a discrete period of time) Feeling that the patient has no control over eating behavior during binges Regular episodes of selfinduced vomiting, use of laxatives or diuretics, or vigorous exercise to prevent weight gain A minimum of two binge periods a week for three months A persistent concern with body shape and weight Diagnostic and Statistical Method of Mental Disorders, Volume IV Warning Signs Withdrawal from activities and friends Evidence of binge eating--wrapper, containers, disappearance of large amounts of food Evidence of purging behaviors Smell of vomit Many trips to the bathroom after eating Packages of laxatives and diuretics Rigid excessive exercise to compensate for the large amount of calories consumed Rituals around exercising Feeling guilty if a session is missed Allowing special times to binge and purge Warning Signs Swelling in the cheek area of the face Sores or calluses on the back of the hand and knuckles from vomiting Staining of the teeth, increase issues with the teeth--cavities, loss of enamel Medical Complications Inflammation and possible rupture of the esophagus due to frequent vomiting Irregular heart beat and possible heart failure Due to chemical imbalance, from dehydration, loss of sodium and potassium as a result of purging Irregular bowel movements can cause constipation due to laxatives Decay of teeth from stomach acids released during vomiting Treatment Early intervention Team approach Counseling focuses the patient to accept him/herself as a person and not dwell on the concern for body weight Nutritional counseling used to regain normal eating habits Binge Eating May be the most common of all eating disorders 2% of all people in U.S. have this disorder Slightly more common in women than men Depression is present in about 50% of all people with disorder Warning Signs Eating large amounts of food, larger than most people consume Eat quickly during a binge Eat alone Feel that eating is out of control Feelings of guilt and disgust after eating Medical Complications High blood pressure Gallbladder disease Heart disease High cholesterol levels Depression and other emotional issues Certain types of cancer If you think someone you know has a eating disorderwhat should you do? Tell your friend you are worried--gently Be a supportive listener--it is not your job to diagnose the problem Encourage him/her to get medical help Avoid talking about the food, forcing him/her to eat, or reinforcing that he/she "looks great" Get help from an adult In conclusion Eating disorders are not due to a failure of will or behavior-- they are real, treatable medical illnesses in which certain maladaptive patterns of eating take on a life of their own. The main types of eating disorders are anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder Frequently develop during adolescent years Frequently cooccur with other psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety disorders Include a wide range of medical complications ...
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