Chapter 8.pdf - 1 IMPORTANCE OF NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION We...

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We use nonverbal communication to: 1. Shape impressions of ourselvesNonverbal cues can enhance or hinder perceived attractiveness, credibility, status 2. Establish intimacy, rapport, immediacyThrough eye contact, smiling, nodding in agreement3. Facilitate or inhibit attentionNonverbal distractions4. Model behavior (social proof)Putting on a seatbelt5. Signal expectationsEye contact to signal turn-taking during conversation6. Violate others’ expectationsStanding too close or too far awayIMPORTANCE OF NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION2
The Direct Effects model of ImmediacyImmediacy behaviors are warm, friendly, and involvingAndersen (1999): warm, involving, immediate behaviors enhance the persuasiveness of a messageIt is easier to comply with those we likeWe tend to trust warm, friendly people3
TYPES OF NONVERBAL COMMUNICATIONNonverbal CodesKinesicsHapticsProxemicsChronemicsArtifactsPhysical appearance4
Common expressions about eye contactShifty eyes, lying eyes, wild-eyed, kind eyes, evil eye, glazed over, etc.Eye contact conveys:Interest, attentionAttraction, likingWarmth, immediacyEye contact usually enhances persuasion.“Gaze produced greater compliance than gaze aversion in every one of the 12 studies” (Segrin, 1993, p. 173)Gaze avoidanceStrangers are less likely to comply with a gaze avoiding requesterGaze avoidance may be perceived as rudeness, ostracismJurors perceive gaze avoiding witnesses as less believableEye Contact5
The exception to the general ruleKleinke (1980) found that an illegitimate request was more effective without eye contactEye Contact6
Smiling is an immediacy behavior.Smiling conveys:Warmth, Attraction, Liking, SincerityFood servers who smile receive larger tips.Job applicants who smile are rated more favorablyCheaters who smiled received more lenient treatmentExcessive smiling may backfire.May be perceived as phonyMay be perceived as shallowSmiling7
Mirroring involves matching or mimicking another’s behaviorEye contact, posture, gestures, stanceMirroring conveys:Similarity, empathyMirroring facilitates persuasionSpeed daters who used mirroring were rated more highlyNegotiators who used mirroring were more likely to reach a dealConsumers who evaluated products rated them more highly when mirroring was usedMirroring negative nonverbal cues may be counterproductiveScowling, closed postureMirroring8

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