Chapter9no - Avoiding Tobacco Use Beth Hensleigh Graduate...

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Unformatted text preview: Avoiding Tobacco Use Beth Hensleigh Graduate Assistant Texas A&M University Tobacco Use More than 3,000 youth begin smoking each day in the U.S. Today, there are approximately 46 million smokers in the U.S. FDA regulates access and labeling, but not marketing. Women and Tobacco Out of the 46 million smokers in the U.S., approximately 22 million are women, and 1.5 million are adolescent girls. According to the former Surgeon General David Satcher, “smoking-related disease among women is a full-blown epidemic.” (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2001). Surgeon General’s Report: Women and Smoking 2001, p.2) Women and Tobacco Since 1980, more than 3 million U.S. women have suffered premature deaths as a result of smoking. Approximately 15 years of life are lost for an adult woman who chooses to smoke. Women and Tobacco Smoking among women usually begins in the high school years. 2001- approximately 22% of high school students had smoked at least one cigarette prior to age 13; approximately 30% of 9th grade girls and 40% of high school girls had smoked during the 30 days prior to being interviewed. Women and Tobacco Ethnicity plays a role in the prevalence of women who smoke. American Indian or Alaska Native women have the highest, followed by white and African American women. The lowest prevalence rates are in Hispanic and Asian or Pacific Islander women Why Do Women Smoke? Media Peer Pressure/Influence Family Friends Unaware of the health risks Addiction Substances in Tobacco Over 4,800 chemical compounds in tobacco smoke ~60 compounds are carcinogenic Three major tobacco components include: Nicotine Poisonous gases Particulate matter (tar) Nicotine Addictive substance in tobacco that has an accelerating effect on the central nervous system (CNS). Constricts blood vessels. When smokers inhale, 90% of the nicotine is absorbed in the bloodstream. Quick acting. Poisonous Gases Over 270 poisonous gases within tobacco smoke Carbon monoxide Increases heart rate Elevates blood pressure Impairs visual acuity Combines with oxygen to form carboxyhemoglobin Particulate Matter (Tar) Tar Tar is the gummy mixture left over from burning tobacco. Tar includes over 200 chemicals and is the most carcinogenic agent in cigarettes. Affect on the respiratory system. Adverse Health Effects of Tobacco Use Respiratory Concerns Cardiovascular Diseases Cancer Body weight Other physical concerns (cataract formation, adult-onset leukemia, bone loss and other aging characteristics) Addiction Addiction to Nicotine Nicotine addiction: the state of being physically and emotionally dependent on nicotine. Withdrawal symptoms are experienced when trying to quit after being addicted. Tolerance: increased doses are needed to achieve desired effects. Dependence: when a person cannot live comfortably without a drug. Addiction Over 90% of women who smoke develop a dependence on nicotine. Overcoming addiction is difficult Physical and psychological dependency Uncomfortable withdrawal symptom s Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) ETS is smoke that is discharged from the lighted end of the cigarette, called sidestream smoke. 2 times as much tar and nicotine, 3 times as much carbon monoxide, and 3 times as much ammonia and benzopyrene than mainstream smoke (smoke drawn through the cigarette and inhaled and exhaled by the smoker). Environmental Tobacco Smoke Side-stream smoke produces pollutants that: Create free radicals in the body Enters into the environment with higher concentrations of unhealthy substances, because there is no filter for diluting the hazardous chemicals Environmental Tobacco Smoke Negative consequences from passive smoke is calculated by the actual number of smokers in the room, the number of cigarettes smokes, ventilation, and the amount of continual exposure to the smoke. Pack years = # of cigarette packs per day smoked by an individual x # of years the nonsmoker was exposed Effects of ETS Effects on Adults Nonsmokers married to smokers Increases risk of lung cancer by 34% among nonsmokers 20% of lung cancer deaths are attributed to ETS 17% of lung cancers in nonsmokers are linked to exposure of ETS during childhood and teenage years Effects of ETS Effects on Children Respiratory infections The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) stated that passive smoke impairs the respiratory health of thousands of young children, increases the incidence of middle ear disease, and both worsens asthmatic conditions and causes new cases of asthma. Smoking and Pregnancy Negative consequences include: Nicotine constricts the fetal blood vessels and breathing movements Carbon monoxide reduces the oxygen supply to the fetus The ability for the fetus to metabolize vitamins is reduced Increased risk of ectopic pregnancy Smoking and Pregnancy Negative consequences continued: Increased risk (~2x) of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage) Reduced weight babies Reduced breast-milk volume and infant growth Increased likelihood of SIDS Increased risk of hemorrhaging and delivering a stillborn infant during delivery Slower healing after delivery for mothers and difficulty with babies feeding, digesting food, sleeping, and restlessness Smoking Cessation Cessation Approaches Behavior modification: learning to change smoking behavior patterns. Smoking-cessation is another term for breaking a smoking habit. Nicotine replacement is getting nicotine through means other than tobacco. Nicotine chewing gum Transdermal nicotine replacement patch Nicotine nasal spray Nicotine Inhaler Zyban Benefits of Smoking Cessation Enhances the senses (ex. Food begins to smell and taste better) Women who quit are sick less often, miss fewer days of work, and have fewer complaints about general health issues. Saves money Refer to Table 9.1 in your book for a summary of short- and long-term benefits that a women can gain from smoking cessation. How to Stop Smoking! The American Cancer Society (ACS) suggests: Make a decision to quit Set a quit date Change smoking-related habits Deal with withdrawal Stay tobacco-free Caffeine Approximately 54% of the U.S. adult population consumes coffee The individual coffee drinker spends an average $165 each year on coffee Women consume approximately 1.4 cups of coffee a day What is Caffeine? Caffeine is a stimulate within a family of chemical compounds known as methylxanthines. It stimulates certain neurotransmitters in the CNS Found in over 60 plants and trees Taken into the body in a water-soluble form and is absorbed into the bloodstream, mostly through the small intestine Caffeine Caffeine takes about 30 minutes to display the initial effects Effects of the CNS are felt within 2 hours after ingestion Caffeine is distributed to the brain, and can also be passed to the placenta and to the fetus of a pregnant women. Effects of Caffeine Why do so many people consume caffeine? Stimulating effects, etc. Caffeine Products Coffee Colas Chocolate OTC drugs Effects of Caffeine on Health Osteoporosis and Caffeine Pregnancy and Caffeine Breast Health and Caffeine Summary Use of tobacco products is a serious health behavior that is related to several adverse health effects. Deaths related to tobacco use continue to increase. There are several factors that influence women to begin smoking. A number of substances in tobacco are toxic and cause morbidity and mortality in women. ETS produces chemicals that cause a number of serious diseases in women and children Pregnant women should not smoke, due to several detrimental effects. Benefits of smoking cessation are numerous Caffeine is related to several adverse health effects. ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/26/2008 for the course HLTH 700 taught by Professor Chaney during the Fall '05 term at Texas A&M.

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