Chapter11no

Chapter11no - Using Other Psychoactive Drugs Chapter 11...

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Unformatted text preview: Using Other Psychoactive Drugs Chapter 11 Beth Hensleigh, M.A. Texas A&M University Psychoactive Drugs Those drugs designed to alter: A person's experiences or consciousness Their short and long-term effects Have a potential for abuse and addiction Addictive Behavior Habits that are out of control and negatively affect a person's health Abuse vs. Dependence A person may abuse a substance even if he or she is not physically dependent on it Substance Dependence Diagnosed when an individual experiences a cluster of 3 or more of the following symptoms Developing a tolerance to the substance Experiencing withdrawal syndrome Taking the substance in a larger amount or over a longer period than the substance was intended Expressing a persistent desire to cut down substance use Most time is spent getting, using, & recovering Changing things due to substance use Continuing use when knowing that it is a problem Drug Users Risk factors associated with using drugs Age Gender Personality Peer group Family Background Reasons for Drug Use Curiosity, rebellious, vulnerable Appear daring Imitate role models Experimentation Escape boredom Psychological problems Anxiety Risk Factors Associated With Substance Dependence Physical Genetic Prenatal exposure Chronic Pain Psychological Need for excitement Immediate gratification Feelings of rejection Depression Blot out emotional pain Mental Illness Risk Factors Associated With Substance Dependence (con't) Social risk factors Drug abuse in the family Poverty Peer use Health care professionals 3 Determinants of How a Drug Will Effect the Body Drug Factors properties of the drug and how it is used User Factors Social Factors Drug Factors Pharmacological Properties Dose-response function Time-action function Drug-use history Method of use User Factors Pregnancy User expectations Body mass Biochemical states Genetic factors Social Factors Setting Physical and social environment Prescription Drugs Over 2,500 prescription drugs have been approved by the FDA. Prescription drugs are made of natural and/or synthetic chemicals and can only be obtained with a physician's written authorization. FDA regulations Prescription Drugs Prescription drugs have three names Generic name Chemical name Brand name Understanding Drug Labels It is important to carefully follow the directions on a prescription label in order to receive the most effective results when taking a drug. Prescription Label Questions for physician Commonly Prescribed Drugs Most frequently prescribed drugs Weight management drugs Antidepressants Sedative-hypnotics Hormone regulation substances Weight Control In order to help with weight management and reduction, certain weight control substances can be prescribed by a physician or purchased over-the-counter. Effectiveness of diet drugs Types of diet drugs Antidepressants Antidepressants are utilized to alleviate serious depression and are sometimes used in combination with other types of therapy or lifestyle changes. Types of antidepressants Sedative Hypnotics Sedative hypnotics, such as benzodiazepines have been proven to be effective and safe when treating anxiety disorders. Types of sedative hypnotics Hormone Therapy Hormone therapy is a method in which the estrogen levels are increased within a women's body. Who benefits from hormone therapy? Research findings regarding hormone therapy reveal that many of the benefits that were considered in the past, at this point, have been proven to be unfounded. Over-the-Counter (OTC) Drugs Over 80 categories of OTC drugs containing around 250,000 to 300,000 drug products are available to the public without a prescription from a physician. 1962-Kefauver-Harris Act In 1992, the U.S. General Accounting Office indicated that the FDA was unable to determine how many OTC drugs were on the market, therefore, there was no guarantee that all of them were safe and effective. OTC Drug Use by Women In order to reduce the amount of mistakes and misuse of OTC medicines, drug labels and packages inserts are provided and are overseen by the FDA. FDA regulations of OTC medicine labels Active ingredient Uses Warnings Inactive ingredients Purpose Directions Other Information Major Categories of OTC Drugs Purchased by Women Weight Management Products Laxatives Sleep Aids Illicit Drugs During any given month, over 4 million women in the U.S. abuse an illicit drug. Almost of all women between the ages of 15 and 44 years old have used an illicit drug at least once. Major Psychoactive Drugs Opioids Central Nervous System Depressants Central Nervous System Stimulants Marijuana Hallucinogens Inhalants Opioids Opioids are natural or synthetic drugs designed to relieve pain , cause drowsiness, and induce euphoria Can be injected, absorbed through the digestive tract, or inhaled Abuse often results in dependence Example = Heroin Central Nervous System Depressants CNS depressants slow the activity of the CNS Effects range from mild sedation to death Eg. Alcohol, Barbiturates, & other sedatives Barbiturates can be taken orally or injected Eg. Valium & Xanax Usually addiction starts with a prescription Central Nervous System Stimulants Speeds up activity of the nervous system Heart rate increases Blood pressure rises Pupils dilate Blood vessels constrict Wakefulness Eg. cocaine, amphetamines, nicotine, ephedrine, & caffeine Cocaine Inhaled or injected for the most intensive effects When processed with baking soda and water = crack Crack is a ready to smoke form of cocaine Cocaine Larger the dose and how rapidly it is absorbed depends on how great the effects Sudden death is the most common result of CNS stimulation Convulsions Long term use causes paranoia and aggressiveness Must be taken frequently to produce desired effects and to counter withdrawal Causes very serious pregnancy complications Effects on Pregnancy Research indicates several consequences that occur from cocaine and crack use during pregnancy: Intrauterine growth retardation Pregnancy complications Premature labor and spontaneous abortion Consequences to the Fetus and Newborn Studies have shown increased congenital abnormalities, mild neurodysfunction, cerebral infarction, seizures, and heads with smaller circumference. SIDS has also been associated with cocaine abuse by pregnant women. Marijuana Most widely used drug in the U.S. 71 million Americans have tried it 30 % of college students have used it Short term effects Low doses euphoria, heightened experiences, slowed sense of time, relaxation Moderate doses impaired memory function, lapses of attention, mind seems separated from the body High doses change in body image, sensory distortion, anxious, panic Marijuana Long term use Heavy users experience subtle impairments of attention and memory Decreases testosterone levels and sperm count Severe pregnancy complications Dependence does not develop in the same manner as with other drugs However, marijuana may become the focus of the user's life to the exclusion of everything else Effects of Marijuana on Body Systems Central Nervous System Reduces short-term memory, increases chances of developing a mental illness, reduces cognitive skills, blurs and impairs vision perception, produces personality change, and alters motor coordination Respiratory System Can cause lung cancer, lung damage, pulmonary diseases, chronic bronchitis, and potential damage to the trachea. Effects of Marijuana on Body Systems Cardiovascular System Produces tachycardia (irregular heartbeat), increases heart rate, blood pressure, concerns related to angina, diabetes, and aggravates high blood pressure in women who already have these disorders Reproductive System Disrupts the menstrual cycle, impairs ovulation and fertility, increases levels of testosterone in females, and may cause irreversible damage to the female ovum supply. Effects on Pregnancy The research on the effects of marijuana and pregnancy is lacking; however, THC can easily cross the placenta of the mother to the fetus. Infants born to mothers who have smoked marijuana are likely to weigh less and are shorter in length than infants born to nonsmokers. Amphetamines Synthetic chemicals that are CNS stimulants Eg. Speed, Crank, Ice Small doses increase alertness and decrease fatigue Increase motor activity Suppress the diet Abuse leads to bad judgment and sudden exhaustion Paranoia and unprovoked violence Heroin and Methadone Heroin is a semisynthetic narcotic that is produced from chemically altered morphine. Consequences of Heroin Use Heroin is very fast acting and is injected directly into the vein under the skin, snorted, or smoked. It creates a dream-like state and a feeling of euphoria for users Dependency and tolerance Methadone This is a synthetic narcotic that can be taken orally and provides a longer duration of its effects. Used as a substitute for morphine and heroin. Effects on Pregnancy and Delivery Serious consequences can occur if a women uses heroin or methadone during pregnancy. Toxemia Intrauterine growth retardation Premature rupture of the amniotic membrane Preterm labor Breech birth (delivery of the baby bottom first) Effects on the Newborn Low birth weights Smaller head circumference Premature babies SIDS Drug withdrawal (irritability of child) Amphetamines Severe pregnancy complications Hazards = malnutrition, weight loss, cardiovascular damage Other CNS Stimulants Ritalin has similar effects of an amphetamine Ephedrine has amphetamine qualities Caffeine most popular stimulant Hallucinogens Drugs that alter the user's perception of feelings, and thoughts Eg. LSD, PCP (Angeldust), Mushrooms Effects of Hallucinogens Altered sense of time, visual disturbances, improved hearing, changes in mood, distorted body perception, dilated pupils, dizziness, weakness, nausea Alter the users perceived relationship between self and external reality Hallucinogens induce tolerance very quickly Hallucinogens Hallucinogens do not produce drugseeking behavior, physical dependence, or withdrawal symptoms Users are always subject to a panic reaction or "bad trip" Spontaneous flashbacks, perceptual distortions, and bizarre thoughts can occur long after the drug is eliminated from the body Inhalants Inhaling certain chemicals can produce effects ranging from heightened pleasure to delirium 3 major groups of inhalants Volatile solvents Nitrates Anesthetics Methods of use Sniffing, snorting, bagging, huffing Slow bodily functions Can lead to loss of consciousness, heart failure, nervous system impairment, hearing loss, damage to the liver, kidney, bone marrow, and death ...
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