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Chapter12no - Chapter 12 Becoming a Wise Consumer Chapter...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 12 Becoming a Wise Consumer Chapter Objectives Define consumerism. Describe the benefits of making intelligent consumer choices. Identify the practices of wise health consumers. Identify characteristics of effectual and qualified health-care providers. Differentiate between quackery and effective alternative healing and treatment methods. Chapter Objectives (cont.) Explain the influence that advertising has on the images and attitudes toward women. Explain the impact of advertising on the financial, emotional, and social aspects of consumer practices. Evaluate beauty-enhancing products that claim to be safe and beneficial. Analyze the benefits and risks of beautyenhancing procedures. Describe the appropriate actions necessary to become a wise and effective health consumer. What is Consumerism? Consumerism: The intelligent purchase and use of products and services that will directly impact one's health. What might influence our decision to make a purchase? News releases Public service media Toll-free hotlines Publications for women and their families Governmental services services ADVERTISEMENTS!!!!!! Which consumer information sources are reliable? What is HIPAA? Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 became effective April 14, 2003. How does this affect me?? All health care providers are required to comply with certain standards and requirements related to the delivery of health care, health fraud and abuse, insurance portability and simplification of electronic transmission of claims, and privacy of medical records. Do You Have Consumer Skills? Selecting a health-care provider is a very important skill. Helpful tips to locate and select a provider: Ask friends Check with local medical society Check with women's health groups Request a preliminary interview with the Dr. Find out office location, hours, insurance requirements, and waiting period for appointments. Health-Care Providers Health-care providers are made up of a variety of medical practitioners, who have completed training in an accredited medical school and passed a medical examination. Health Care Providers There are 3 groups of health-care providers: Independent practitioners trained and licensed for all types of medical practices. This includes medical and osteopathic physicians. Independent practitioners with restricted practices. This group includes podiatrists, dentists, psychologists, and optometrists. Ancillary practitioners who practice under supervision of a medical practitioner. These include nurses, physical therapists, physicians assistant, dental hygienists, and x-ray and lab technicians. Medical Doctor (M.D.) The process of becoming a medical doctor or M.D., requires a minimum of 3 years of premedical college work. Students then spend 4 years in an accredited medical school by the American Medical Association Council on Medical Education and the Association of American Medical Colleges. Following graduations, state or national board examinations must be passed to become licensed. Becoming a specialist such as a pediatrician, neurologist, or psychiatrist requires 3 or more years of additional training, as well as then passing a national examination in their specialty. Doctor of Osteopathy (D.O.) Legally equivalent to a medical doctor and licensed to practice in all states. The process of becoming a doctor of osteopathy begins with 3 years of college work prior admission to osteopathy school. During the 4 years of osteopathic school, the student has over 5,000 hours of training, followed by a 1 year rotating internship at an approved hospital. About half of D.O.'s decide to specialize which requires another 2 to 6 year residency. D.O.'s usually decide to specialize in obstetrics, neurology, psychiatry, and anesthesiology. Other Members of the Health-Care Provider Team Physicians Assistant (PA): Working under the supervision of the physician, the PA can give physical exams, prescribe drugs or therapies, and offer health counseling. Most often performs under supervision of physician, but can function as primary care provider. Certified through the American Nurses Credentialing Center for work in geriatric, pediatric, and family health care. Midwives are usually Registered Nurses who have received additional training, and are certified to perform specific healthcare activities. Nurse Practitioner: Midwife: Mental Health Therapists Mental Health professionals work to treat a variety of conditions related to one's mental and emotional well being. Treatment ranges from occasional counseling to inpatient confinement with medication and electric shock. Choosing A Therapist Ask these questions prior choosing a therapist: What are the credentials of the therapist? Is she/he a licensed therapist? Will my insurance cover the costs of this therapy? What type of treatment does the therapist use? Will he/she prescribe medication? Do I know anyone who has seen this therapist? Was their treatment successful? Are their complaints filed with professional licensing boards? Be Smart! Remember, there will always be so-called professionals who do not mind taking money from their patients and providing poor quality service or even harmful healthcare!!! Do not be afraid to check the credentials! It is actually legal in some states to use the titles, "therapists, counselors, and sex therapists," without any certified credentials! Reporting Unprofessional Treatment What do you do if you have received unprofessional or unethical health-care treatment? Immediately take action Keep a record of what occurred. Contact proper authorities, such as: Administrator or director of hospital Local medical society State licensing board Your insurance carrier Women's health group Health-care Delivery The health-care needs of women are constantly changing and are extremely different from the needs of women 30 years ago. The roles of women in society are extremely different today than 30 years ago, which can cause different types of health-care needs. It is a shared responsibility of the health-care system and women to make sure these needs are properly being met. Barriers to Health Care Recognizing and removing barriers to health-care delivery is essential for quality health-care services. Barriers may include: Too little money Lack of insurance No transportation to and from health facilities Distant travel to health-care providers Job-related demands Home Health Tests Are there benefits to at-home health testing? Over the counter tests can speed up the access to faster results and vital information to many health concerns, while lowering medical costs. Are at-home tests safe? Over reliance of these tests or misinterpretation of the results can be dangerous, however, a wise consumer should not make medical decisions without speaking with a medical professional. Who uses at-home tests? Over a billion dollars are spent annually in markets and on the internet to help monitor certain health conditions while at home. Complementary and Alternative Medicine A group of different medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not presently considered to be part of conventional medicine. Examples of complementary and alternative medicine? Herbal medicine Acupuncture Chiropractic care Massage therapy Herbalism Herbs are often referred to as "drugs" that promote wellness from many disorders or injuries. Plants such as myrrh, oil of cloves, peppermint, and caraway have been used to treat such illnesses as sexually transmitted diseases, inflammation, and heart disease. Medications that are already patented contain plants such as ginger root, castor oil, juniper bush, and alfalfa. Acupuncture Designed to restore balance to improve healing and functioning through inserting needles at precise points on the body. The insertion of needles claims to unblock channels of energy running through the body, thus improving the flow. Recognized by the World Health Organization to improve conditions such as, digestive and respiratory disorders, neurological and muscular ailments, and urinary, menstrual, and reproductive problems. Chiropractic Care Based on the belief that good health depends on the proper functioning of nerve impulse transmission through the nervous system. Currently there are over 50,000 chiropractors in the United States, and they also make up the third largest group of health-care practitioners. There are concerns about this type of practice when the chiropractors treat disorders for which they have not had specific training for. Examples of this include: Physical therapy Sports injuries Acupuncture Nutritional and homeopathic medicine Massage Therapy Besides the benefit of feeling good, massage therapy also claims to promote healing of disease and injury. Recent studies have showed that children receiving nightly massages for 15-20 minutes, showed significant reduction of their symptoms relating to asthma, diabetes, and arthritis. May eliminate the use of drugs and/or surgery for active people, such as athletes, for soreness, injury, and pain. Trigger point massage - Placing pressure on a muscle where the ligaments or tendon is attached. Cross-fiber friction massage Massaging an area where injury or surgery has occurred to break up possible adhesions and scar tissue. Holistic Medicine Derived from the Greek term, holo, which means whole. This idea considers the treatment of the whole person, including physical, mental, emotional, social, and spiritual dimensions. The concerns to this type of medicine include the potential for nonscientific medical practices and practitioners to provide useless, harmful, or possibly deadly care for a dramatically increased fee. Other Complementary & Alternative Health Care Naturopathic medicine Believes in the concept of the body's own natural healing ability through use of herbal medicine, nutrition, relaxation exercises and acupuncture. Reflexology Foot massaging is used to stimulate peak functioning of body systems. Craniosacral therapy Massaging of skull, spine, and sacral areas. Other Complementary & Alternative Health Care Myofacial and rolfing Massaging connective tissue for pain relief and promote structural integration. Myotherapists These therapists manipulate trigger points in elbows, knuckles, and fingers to relieve pain and tension. Yoga Integration of body, mind, and spirit with the universe through movement and relaxation. Aromatherapy Aromatic oils are used in warm baths or massaged or breathed into the body. Health Quackery This is defined by the FDA as the promotion of a medical remedy that does not work and is known to be false or unproven. With any health related concern, there will be some gimmick, potion, or practitioner ready to provide a "remedy," as long as the "price is right." Products that promise things such as: Building a bigger bust line Eating all you want and still lose the weight Melting away cellulite Increasing your libido Beauty Enhancing Products Cosmetics Articles other than soap which are applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance. There are 13 cosmetic categories. Pre-market approval is not required by the FDA for cosmetics. After a product is on the market, if it proves to be dangerous, the FDA can take legal action to obtain the manufacturer's safety data. Beauty Enhancing Products Cosmetic manufacturers must comply with the following rules to produce there product. Work in a sanitary environment Allow no filthy, putrid, or decomposed substances in the product Test for color additives Obtain FDA approval for use of color additives List ingredients on labels in descending order or predominance Avoid use of prohibited ingredients Beauty Enhancing Products Skin Care Products Skin layers contain water and oil, however, less water and oil is produced with the aging process, thus bringing about fine lines and wrinkles. Using an outside source to replenish lost water and oil is known as a moisturizer. Moisturizers for the body and face work similarly, but we tend to pay more attention to our face, thus the reason advertisers tend to promote more facial moisturizers. Moisturizers come in two types: An occlusive type that blocks oils from leaving the skin (ex. Petroleum jelly) A "humectant" type that attracts moisture from the skin and air, and slows down the rate of water loss. Beauty Enhancing Procedures Cosmetic Surgery We are more aware and up to date on the latest technologies for cosmetic surgery today. These procedures are at a high prevalence in our society today, due to women wanting to achieve a certain image desired by most females. Cosmetic surgeon Specializes in procedures that enhance appearance such as face lifts, breast reduction/augmentation, or rhinoplasty ("nose jobs".) Plastic surgeon Trained in reconstructive surgery and performs procedures such as facial reconstruction, skin grafts, or hand surgery, as well as, cosmetic surgery. Types of Cosmetic Procedures Eyelid lift (blepharoplasty) Corrects droopy eyelids or bags below the eye. Neck/face lift (rhytidectomy) Lifts the lower two-thirds of the face, and improves sagging skin, jowls, double chin, and aging neck. Forehead or brow lift Reduces forehead or frown lines and raises eyebrows. Liposuction Removes pounds of fatty tissue. Chin (mentoplasty) or cheek (malar) augmentation Adds cheek bones or more prominent chin line. Nose Job (rhinoplasty) Reshapes nose Chemical Peel (phenol) Removes or fades fine facial wrinkles, acne scars, or sun damage. Dermabrasion Scrapes top layer of skin to help remove fine wrinkles. Collagen or fat injections Fills out skin tissues and helps to reduce wrinkling or scar tissue. Breast Augmentation After appearing on the market 30 years ago, there have been approximately one million women undergo some type of augmentation procedure to reshape, augment, or reconstruct their breasts. Silicone gel-filled implants Were available to any woman prior April 1995 Continuing problems occurred, causing a need for valid and reliable clinical research, limiting the number of women allowed for the procedure. However, after being off the market for nearly a decade, the FDA recommends the restrictions for silicone breast implants be lifted. This is mainly due to continued uncertainty of the long term effects, even after almost a decade long research attempt. Breast Augmentation Saline implants Saline pouches filled with saltwater solution are placed between breast tissue and chest wall. Available to anyone who can afford procedure. Concerns at this time are leakage and/or rupture which will cause additional surgery. Breast Augmentation Mammoplasty (BAMBI) Excess fat is suctioned from the buttocks, thighs, or abdomen and injected between the breast and the chest wall. Procedure developed by Dr. Gerald Johnson, who claims it can increase the breast size by one-half cup size. Concerns with this procedure come from other cosmetic surgeons who claim that the fat will either break down and absorb into the body or develop into a hard calcified mass that tends to mask or mimic breast cancer. Dr. Gerald Johnson no longer performs this procedure. Advertising: Friend or Foe? On television or in magazines, it is the advertisers job to persuade the consumers to buy products or services. Advertisers are great at making everyone and everything in the ads seem perfect! As consumers we must follow the phrase caveat emptor, which means, let the buyer beware. This means it is the consumer's problem to determine whether the advertisement is misleading or truthful, and purchase the product at our own risk! Is this fair? Don't Get Caught Up In the Advertisements! Advertisers do a great job of promoting their products. Some advertisements help us make a decision and some are only used to promote the product, no matter what the product is. When you purchase a product to meet your needs, remember some important questions that can help you make your decision: How does it compare to other products? Can any product really do what this product claims to do? What is the evidence that the product actually works? Am I buying the product or trying to purchase the image that is selling the product? Unrealistic Portrayals of Women Advertisements send the message that a certain product is needed to be thinner, more attractive, more youthful, or to improve a woman's lifestyle. Dissatisfaction with one's physique or lack of youthfulness, makes women more vulnerable to advertisements with thin, young, beautiful women. Does this mean these products are only for young, attractive women? What about the products for women who are average to overweight, over 40 years old, and may not have wrinkle free complexions? Does this mean these women are no worthy of health-promoting and lifestyle enhancing products? NO!! Where is the reality in advertising??? Realistic Portrayals of Women Advertisements are, however, beginning to portray women as the decision makers who are financially independent. Advertisers must now portray women as confident, capable, and caring. As women continue to have a major impact on the market, we will see even more advertisers present women as the intelligent, attentive, concerned, and financially stable individuals that we realistically are!! Health Insurance Health insurance is a contract between an individual or group and an insurance company, which can assist individuals to meet the needs of paying for certain health-care procedures. Over 42 million women, men, and children do not have health insurance, and tens of thousands lose their health insurance coverage every month! Health Insurance Types of Health insurance plans: Basic health insurance: Covers hospital, surgical, and medical expenses. Major medical insurance Assists with any major and/ or long term illness, such as heart disease or cancer, and is usually a supplement to basic health insurance. Comprehensive major medical insurance Combines basic health and major plans to provide for the majority of health-care needs Comprehensive Health Insurance Plan Women should have a specialized, comprehensive health insurance plan, which is designed especially for the unique needs women have. Such a plan should include the following: Universal Access Affordable Reimbursement for a range of providers Nondiscriminatory Equal rating factors (prohibiting the insurance industry to use gender as a rating factor) Require a minimum benefits package with preventative care, reproductive care, mental health benefits, drug abuse care, HIV infections, long-term health care, and care for battered and abused women. Medicare and Medicaid Medicare A governmental health insurance plan provided by the federal government Social Security Act. Provides health-care for: Individuals 65 years of age or older Disabled women under the age of 65 Medicare and Medicaid Medicaid A program financed by the state and federal governments to help provide health care for low income women with no health care. Provides health-care for: Blind Elderly Disabled people Members of families with dependent children Others with certain special circumstances Social Security A protective program that provides benefits to workers and their families who have financial and health-care needs. Program began in 1935 Women earn social security protection for themselves and their children, as well as disability assistance if they can no longer work. Retirement benefits Vary according to age of the retiree Women can be eligible for benefits by age 62, but payments will be lower than if she waited until age 65. For married women, they can receive benefits on their husbands, as well as their own employment record. Be Strong and Take Action!! Agencies The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has the obligation to regulate the following products: Foods Drugs Cosmetics Biological products Medical devices Radiological devices Veterinary products Be Strong and Take Action!! The states are also liable for licensing health professionals such as dentists, physicians, pharmacists including health inspections of restaurants and health clubs. The FDA also offers numerous services to aid the consumer with questions or concerns regarding a product. Consumer Affair Officers under the administration of the FDA can assist consumers even further and are located locally for our convenience. Do You Know Your Credit History? When you decide to make a large purchase, such as a home or automobile, you may need to provide a copy of your credit history report. Credit Bureaus collect and keep up with your past credit history. If you would like to know your credit history, you may contact one of these agencies: Equifax Trans Union TRW Be sure to double check your personal records for accuracy of your credit report. To be a wise consumer, the inaccurate information you find on your report, must be brought to the attention of the Credit Bureau for removal. Do NOT be afraid to question something on the report you are unsure about!!!! Take A Stand!!!! Remember these facts to help you become a wise and responsible consumer Keep a record of calls and/or letters to and from the company or individuals you speak with about a complaint. Look on the packaging of a product for a toll free 800 number or address of the company. If the number or address is no there, go to the reference section of the library and look for books such as Standard and Poor's Register of Corporations. Keep your letters concise and reasonable Include your name, address, work and home phone numbers, and company account number if you have one. If in 2-4 weeks, you have not received satisfaction, then file a formal complaint. Take A Stand!!!! Always remember there will be someone out there trying to take advantage of you as a consumer! Know your rights as a consumer! Do not let anyone take advantage of you!! ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/26/2008 for the course HLTH 700 taught by Professor Chaney during the Fall '05 term at Texas A&M.

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