chapter13no

chapter13no - Preventing Violence & Abuse Against...

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Unformatted text preview: Preventing Violence & Abuse Against Women Chapter 13 Karin Corriere Graduate Assistant Texas A&M University Historical Reality Violence against women has a historical basis Biblical times "..he (husband) shall rule over thee" English law "Rule of Thumb", cannot beat wife with anything larger than the man's thumb Male dominance in a society has direct link to domestic violence Prior to transient U.S. society, families and long-time neighbors often offered protection against violent partners Violence against women is perplexing: those who are supposed to love you are often the ones who hurt you! The Extent of the Problem During a two-hour time: 114 women will be sexually assaulted 1,000 will be the victim of other types of violence 5 million acts of violence are committed against women yearly, usually by intimate partner 3 out of 4 women will be victimized sometime in their life Annually, 320,000 women experience intimate partner violence while pregnant 33.5% of women who are murdered are killed by an intimate partner; 4% of men are killed by an intimate partner Women stay because... Fear of isolation; lose touch with family & friends No education, no job skills or job experience Financial dependency and lack of financial support 50% probability will have lower SES & move to poverty level Fears for her safety, children's safety, her family's safety, or helper's safety Abuser's ability to survive Greater physical danger Religions beliefs (sin) False hope that he will change Maltreatment of a child before the age of 18: physical, mental injury, sexual abuse or exploitation, or neglect Childhood Abuse Physical abuse- cuts, burns, bites, slapping, hair pulling, tickling to point of hysteria, using belts, switches, frequent enemas or laxatives, medical probing, Abuse by neglect Not providing basic necessities (food, shelter, medical care, hygienic environment), malnourishment, being unattended, needing health care, lack of attention & emotional support Emotional abuse depriving child of sense of self-worth, criticizing, belittling child, talking in negative terms, threatening abandonment, ignoring the child, demanding perfection, excessive control Sexual abuse- oral, anal, vaginal intercourse, unwanted touching, using instruments on genitalia, viewing adult genitalia, forcing child to watch porn, forcing child to undress or expose self to adult Potential Negative Consequences of Childhood Abuse Statistics Consequences Poor sense of self-worth Withdraw, isolate themselves May be suicidal Possible Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Poorer social adjustment May have a permanent fragmented identity resulting in multiple personality disorder Decreased cohesion and adaptability in the family of origin 85% of childhood abuse is done by someone the child knows 3 million referrals concerning 5 million children reported to U.S. CPS in 2001 1,300 children died in 2001 from abuse & neglect Of those abused: 50% were white 25% were African-American 15% were Hispanic 2% & 1% were American Indian and Asian Abuse and Adult Women Females who are abused during childhood often expect to be abused or feel they deserve abuse during their adult years. It often takes forms similar to child abuse Cycle of Abuse Phase I- Tension & Buildup Increased arguments Verbal or physical abuse Attempts to keep woman under control Threatens her if she does not "obey or carry out" his demands Woman is willing to be helped or assisted by family or friends Cycle of Abuse: Abusive Incident tension or anger exceed his ability to cope result is angry and violent responses responses are to reduce stress or change "her" behavior intervening factors by police or medical attention may occur she may be hurt, angry, or frightened He may feel shame and/or guilt both may want violence to cease arrest of batterer and immediate consequences are good intervention factors Cycle of Abuse Calm or "Honeymoon" Phase Feelings of reconciliation Justifies behavior: blames other people/situations Reminds woman of earlier, more loving periods Woman may receive gifts, flowers and promises Woman responds to overtures of better behaviors and promises Partners may minimize, forget, or distort incident(s) Woman not receptive to assistance or counseling Perpetrator may be receptive to counseling due to remorsefulness Perpetrator believes his partner will remain in relationship Physical Abuse Cuts, burns, bites, bruises, broken bones, disfigurement r History of emergency room abuse r Long term: chronic conditions arthritis, hypertension, G.I. Disorders, asthma, etc. r Emotional & Psychological Abuse r r Financial Disadvantages t r r Threatening harm t r r Perpetrator has control of house finances May not be allowed to work May have to account for all money she makes Lacks sense of freedom and independence r Inflicts harm on children and threatens to take them away Threaten suicide, or kill her, her family, friends Control behavior t r r Young children at home t r r Threats to children Using the children to degrade or belittle their mother: "you're stupid just like your mother" Environment that hinders development of worthiness and positive self-concept r r Limit partners activities She can't join organizations, limits contact with others Cannot go on errands or travel Must know where and with whom partner at all times r Isolation t r r Fear for self and children t r Frightened of partners looks, gestures, destruction of property, harming children or pets He may explode and curse, call names, humiliate woman and children r Controls all social contacts Perpetrator very jealous and makes accusations Woman may not be able to have contact with her family Sexual Assault Describes numerous forms of sexual improprieties and sexual violence toward another individual Legal Definition a person commits a sexual assault "if that person causes the penetration of the anus, vagina or mouth of another person with a sexual organ or object, without that persons consent OR causes another person to contact or penetrate the mouth, anus, or sexual organ of another person without their consent." Why Men Commit Sexual Assault A way to "punish" women "Put them in their place" Gain revenge As an "afterthought" or "bonus" following a robbery Form of recreation Way to gain access to unavailable or unwilling women No statement made that men raped because they "desired" the woman. E. Scully, Who's to blame for sexual violence?" USA Today Magazine, 1992 Prevalence of Sexual Assault 20% of college women reported being raped on a date 9 out of 10 victims knew their attackers as dating partner or acquaintances Police estimate that only 34% of stranger rape and 13% of acquaintance rape are reported Intimate male partners responsible for rape and sexual assault of over 41,700 women in 2001 Each statistic is reflective of a woman whose life is forever changed as a result of a violation inflicted on her by another human being. Avoiding Date Rape: Men Know your sexual limits Being turned down is and desires not a rejection of you personally Accept a woman's decision: "No" means "NO" Don't make assumptions about sexy appearance Don't assume that previous sex applies to current situation Avoid excessive use of alcohol and drugs Avoiding Rape: Women Know your sexual desire and limits and communicate them Be assertive: be direct and firm about desires Pay attention to what is happening around you Trust your intuition Be aware that your Avoid excessive use of nonverbal actions send alcohol and drugs a message Homophobia An irrational fear of homosexuality Can result in violent acts against gay or lesbian individuals Incidents of victimization include verbal harassment, threats, physical assault and abuse by police Domestic violence occurs in gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender relationships People who are not "out" may be reluctant to report violence within the gay/lesbian relationship Sexual Harassment Represents abuse of power and position and it is a criminal offense Takes place most often in workplace or education setting Men and women can be victims of sexual harassment Types of sexual harassment Unwanted comments with sexual overtones Sexual innuendoes Unwanted and uninvited touching or staring Requests for sexual favors Sexual jokes, comments, personal questions Working, being or living in a hostile, offensive, or intimidating environment Strategies for Addressing Sexual Harassment Don't ignore innuendoes or degrading statements; clearly and firmly state your objection Write down any incidents (include time, date and witnesses) Give information to another trusted person Confront harassment by reporting it to authorities: keep it from happening to others Be truthful and accurate about incident. Do NOT place your and others reputations in jeopardy. Fallout can be serious and embarrassing Characteristics of Battered Women Personal Beliefs Childhood exposure to abuse: Equate love with abuse Those who love you, abuse you Man is head of household Protestant religion & beliefs Women become convinced that it's safer to follow his demands/beliefs than have a true martial partnership. Personal Feelings Unworthy of healthy treatment by partner Underestimate abilities Inadequate (even if successful outside of relationship) Blames themselves Her fault, her responsibility Depression, hopelessness, helplessness Emotionally/financially dependent Codependency A dependency with the abuser (or addict) and the abuser's problems to the point of self-neglect. Responsible for other's needs, wants, happiness, job, friends, and ultimate destiny Abused women often endure the abuse so that can "take care" of the abuser Perception of Partner If he stops using AOD, he will stop No one else can help abusing me him overcome the problem He may die or commit suicide without me. Loves and is committed to abuser He/she needs me Common Elements in All Types of Abuse Minimization: Trivialization: *Public thinks it's rare Largely in one direction Tip of the ice-burg Men victimize women 2 to 3 times greater than reported male relative to female; obscene calls, date rape Directionality: Viewed Blaming the Victim If jokingly Rape: lie back & enjoy Negate impact/seriousness of violence you only: locked the car, bought the security system; hadn't dressed sexy; stopped him sooner Self-control is not more difficult for men than women Consequences of Abuse Consequences depend duration, type, and severity of abuse. Over time, abuse usually escalates in severity and frequency. Physical Abuse Scale Throwing things, punching the wall Pushing, shoving, grabbing Slapping with an open hand Kicking, biting Hitting with a closed fist Attempting strangulation Beating up Threatening with a weapon Assault with a weapon Physical Consequences Plethora of physical consequences Cuts, burns, punctures Bites, bruises, bleeding Dislocations and bone fractures Abused women may have a history of many visits to emergency rooms Emotional and Psychological Consequences r Depression, anxiety attacks, anger, hostility, guilt, shame, inferiority Loss of trust-important Sexual dysfunction, self-hatred, unnatural response to loving relationships I had an oil slick oozing goo inside me. I knew I was filled with something evil, and that evil rubbed off on everyone I came in contact with. So I didn't let anybody really get near me. a r a r Anonymous Spiritual Consequences Basic values of life are Perpetrator is supposed violated to be a nurturing & protecting person Impair or lose core values of trust, honesty, respect & concern Mistrust their own perception of people and their motives Social Consequences r r r r r r r Increases costs of health care for everyone Overloads medical personnel Emergency care costs most expensive, yet most frequently used Overburdens community resources: police, courts, social support systems Increases drugs abuse, violence & homelessness Violence cycles into next generation Decreases overall quality of life Moving Toward Change Many situations, as discussed earlier, cause women to stay in abusive relationships Women may be in greater physical danger by leaving a relationship than by staying in it Fear is the main reason women stay in abusive relationships Some women stay, many women leave the relationship Deciding to Leave Typically leave 5 to 7 times Feel safe enough and have resources After safe shelter, women often return to abuser Try to eliminate abuse and not terminate relationship Leave if abuse continues Develop a Safety Plan Find a way to leave List to call in case of emergency Suitcase with: clothing, personal items, money, social security card, bank books, birth certificates, school records Short term survival: place to go, money (if possible), feeding & clothing self/children Long term survival: job, some type of education, developing job skills, child care Locating a Shelter Find shelter or hotline to ask for help Can contact church, clergy, or community center 1,200 safe shelters for women in US Usually can stay for 30 days May be provided by shelter or police May have to leave with few belongings and return when abuser is gone to retrieve other things Women help with chores Plan for the future, help with job search & child care Receive counseling, resource help, lawyer help, Medicaid & Social Security help, filing protective orders if needed. Transportation At shelter Process of Healing Commit to heal Admit the abuse did occur Place blame in the right place Develop realistic feelings Listen to instincts Recognize losses Use the anger Confront the abuser Forgiveness Spiritual renewal Moving Forward r r Building resiliency t Rebound, overcome, bounce back r r r r r r r Develop support systems Involvement with healthy people Promote feelings of worthiness Find sense of purpose Take control of own life Become responsible Self-Caring t Caring for one's physical, emotional & spiritual needs r Enables women to value self and act accordingly How would you demonstrate self-care? Meeting Needs t t Use of Maslow Hierarchy & Assessment Preventing Abuse Personal Level Community Level State and Federal Level Resources: Web Pages Violence Against Women National Coalition Against Domestic http://www.4women.org/violence/index.cfm Violence http://webmerchants.com/ncadv/ Office of Violence Against Women http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/vawo/ Brazos Valley Rape Crisis Center http://www.rapecrisisbv.org/ National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect http://www.calib.com/nccanch/ Center for Prevention of Sexual and Domestic Violence http://www.cpsdv.org/ Remember My Name End Abuse http://endabuse.org/ National Criminal Justice Reference Center http://www.ncjrs.org/ http://www.ncadv.org/remember/rememb http://www.ncadv.org/remember/remem ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/26/2008 for the course HLTH 700 taught by Professor Chaney during the Fall '05 term at Texas A&M.

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