Chapter15no - Examining Gynecological Issues Beth McNeill...

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Unformatted text preview: Examining Gynecological Issues Beth McNeill M.S. Lecturer Department of Health and Kinesiology Texas A&M University External Female Genitalia Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) 2000 year old cultural practice Partial to full removal of all external female genitalia Three types of procedures Sunna Circumcision- removal of hood and clitoral tip Clitoridectomy-removal of clitoris (85% of FGM) -Infibulation-clitoridectomy in addition to stitching the labia together in an effort to minimize the vaginal opening. (15% of FGM) FGM--Common Practices Performed on young girls (4 to 8 years) Most commonly performed with rudimentary and unsanitary procedures Little or no use of anesthesia Cultural practice associated with womanhood Cultural practice associated with womanhood May lead to serious complications: shock, sterility, sexual dysfunction... Justification according to societies that practice FGM Reduces likelihood of extramarital affairs among women Enhance femininity Purification of female Toxic effects of the clitoris Increase fertility Control genital odor Cancer prevention Prevention of masturbation, lesbianism and nervousness Increase beauty and prevent skin from yellowing Matching sex drive of male Efforts to end the practice of FGM Amnesty International: dedicated to eliminating FGM practices World Health Organization: April 1997 unveiled plan for decline of FGM practices within 10 years and complete eradication of the practice of FGM with in three generations. Internal Female Genitalia COMPLICATOINS: Endometriosis Endometriosis: A condition in which the lining of the endometrium fragments lodge in parts of the body other than the uterus. COMPLICATIONS: Hysterectomy Hysterectomy: removal of part or all of a woman's uterus and sometimes fallopian tubes, ovaries and cervix. -Supra-cervical-removes upper part of the uterus but not the cervix -Total-removes cervix and uterus --Radical- removes uterus, cervix, upper part of vagina and supporting tissue Female Breasts Breast Cancer All women are at risk for breast cancer 200,000 diagnosed cases in U.S. in 2001 Second leading cause of cancer death in American women Life time risk of getting breast cancer 1 in 8 Lifetime risk of dying from breast cancer 1 in 28 Breast Screening A breast-screening program includes; Breast self-examination Regular clinical breast exams Mammograms Mammogram X-ray of breast tissue Decreases mortality of breast cancer by 30% Recommended yearly after age 40 Mammography identifies about 15% of tumors that are missed by external palpitation MENSTRUATION: Menarche Menarche is the onset of the first menstrual period Indicates the onset of puberty Average age at onset is 12.8 years Isolated premature menarche-early onset Primary amenorrhea- absence of menstrual flow MENSTRUATION: Six primary menstrual hormones HORMONE Gonadotropinreleasing hormone (GnRH) Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) & Luteinizing hormones (LH) Estrogen, Progesterone & Testosterone SOURCE Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Ovaries MENSTRUATION: Ovarian Cycle MENSTRUATION: Menstrual Disorders Amenorrhea-absent flow Oligomenorrhea- light flow Menorrheagia- heavy bleeding Dysmenorrhea-severe menstrual cramps Premenstrual syndrome Physical symptoms Emotional symptoms Toxic Shock Syndrome SCREENING & DIAGNOSTICS Pelvic Exam & Pap smear SCREENING & DIAGNOSTICS Papanicolaou test (Pap smear) MENOPAUSE Cessation of ovulation and menstruation Average age in U.S. 51 years Symptoms Mood changes Hot flashes and skin flushing Amenorrhea or Irregular menstrual periods Vaginal dryness & dyspareunia Decreased libido Hormone Replacement Therapy HRT BENEFITS Decrease in LDL Increase in HDL Prevention of bone fractures associated with osteoporosis Control of hot flashes Control of vaginal dryness Decrease risk of colorectal cancer RISKS Breast cancer Stroke Heart Attack Cancer of the uterus Gall bladder disease Blood clots Pulmonary embolism FEMALE SEXUAL RESPONSE CYCLE Excitement Plateau Orgasmic Resolution Aging and Sexual Response EXCITEMENT PHASE Decrease in vasocongestion Decrease in vaginal lubrication and elasticity ORGASM PHASE Fewer muscle contractions Contractions sometimes painful PLATEAU PHASE Less intensity Less uterine elevation RESOULUTION PHASE Shorter return time to un-aroused state Gynecological Issues Knowledge empowers women to enhance and protect their reproductive health. ...
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