Chapter19no - Managing Cardiovascular Health and Chronic...

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Unformatted text preview: Managing Cardiovascular Health and Chronic Health Conditions Chapter 19 Catherine N. Rasberry Objectives Describe how the cardiovascular system functions. Differentiate among the types of heart disease. Compare and contrast the various chronic conditions. Determine risk factors for heart disease and other chronic conditions. (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Objectives Describe ways to increase the protective factors that prevent heart disease and other chronic conditions. Identify the early warning signals for heart disease and other chronic conditions. Explain the current treatment protocols for heart disease and other chronic conditions. (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Why study Cardiovascular Health? Leading Cause of Death (women) 1 in 5 females has some form of heart or Coronary heart disease (CHD) blood vessel disease Although heart disease is more prevalent in men, it is more deadly in women. Why the discrepancy? Partially because the majority of heart research has been based on men. (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) The Cardiovascular System Heart Atria right and left (upper chambers) Ventricles right and left (lower chambers) Arteries Capillaries Veins Blood vessels (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Types of Heart Disease Atherosclerosis Myocardial Angina Pectoris Dysrhythmia Congestive Heart Infarction Congenital Heart Disease Failure Endocardititis Mitral Valve Prolapse (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Atherosclerosis Gradual thickening and hardening of artery walls A main factor in the development of Buildup of cholesterol, lipids, and other waste products called plaque atherosclerosis is excess (high) blood cholesterol (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004; Robbins, Powers, & Burgess, 2002) Atherosclerosis (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Balloon angioplasty (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Angina Pectoris Chest pain Ischemia heart working in the absence of oxygen (or with insufficient oxygen) Can be a warning sign of a myocardial infarction (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Myocardial Infarction (MI) Heart attack Results in damage to the muscle cut off from oxygen supply MI is often more lethal for women than men Heart muscle not receiving blood (and therefore, oxygen) "Women are more likely to die within a year of the 1st heart attack or to have a 2nd MI within 6 years." (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Congenital Heart Disease Nearly 35 different types of congenital heart defects (occurring from birth) Stats Seek specialized medical professionals Women have additional considerations (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) 8 of every 1,000 infants born each year 32,000 babies born in U.S. each year Dysrhythmia "Irregular or abnormal heart rhythms" caused by "disturbances in the normal sequence of cardiac electrical activity" Tachycardia Bradycardia Fast heart rate (>100 bpm) Slow heart rate (<60 bpm) Atrial fibrillation "most common serious heart rhythm abnormality" A variety of treatment options exist (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) "occurs when the heart is too weak to pump blood adequately to the body" More common in women than men Especially older women Best treatment prevent additional damage (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Endocarditis "inflammation or infection of the inside lining of the heart chambers and heart valves that can damage or destroy the heart valves" Most common source bacterial infection Certain invasive procedures lead to greater risk (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Mitral Valve Prolapse Mitral valve flaps close incorrectly by moving into the left atrium during left ventricle contraction Can also have mitral regurgitation (the sound of blood slipping back into the atrium) Can affect men or women of any age (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) CVD Risk Factors Unchangeable Age Family History Race Gender Modifiable High Blood Pressure High Blood Cholesterol Physical Inactivity Obesity & Overweight Diabetes (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Risk Factors continued... Additional contributing factors Menopause and Estrogen Loss Birth Control Pills High Triglycerides Excessive Alcohol Consumption Stress (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Protective Factors Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Antioxidant Vitamins Aspirin (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Screening & Diagnosis Many traditional screening tests were developed for men, and are not always the best for women. stressechocardiogram may be a more accurate option for women Uses treadmill and ultrasound Noninvasive (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Stroke 3rd leading cause of death in women Leading cause of adult disability More women than men die from strokes (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Primary types: Stroke 1. Hemorrhagic 2. Ischemic (blood vessel is blocked) About 80% of all strokes More common in older women Types: Embolism Thrombosis About 20% of all strokes More common in young women (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Stroke (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Stroke: Warning Signs Sudden weakness or numbness on one side of the body, usually the face, arm, or leg Sudden blurred or dim vision, often on one side Loss of speech or difficulty comprehending speech Sudden and severe headaches with no known cause Dizziness and lack of balance, with possibility of sudden, unexplained falls Recurring TIAs (transient ischemic attacks) or mini strokes that last several minutes (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Stroke: Risk factors Hypertension Heart disease Diabetes High red blood cell count Carotid artery disease TIAs Atrial fibrillation High cholesterol and blood lipid levels Smoking Excessive alcohol intake Drug abuse Inactivity Stress Obesity/Overweight (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Stroke: Treatment Drugs Medical Procedures "can break up clots and limit damage to the brain if administered within 3 hours of the start of symptoms" Carotid endarterectomy Angioplasty Stents Other options are also available (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Other Chronic Diseases Osteoporosis Epilepsy Arthritis Diabetes Mellitus Multiple Sclerosis Alzheimer's Disease (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Osteoporosis boneweakening disorder "results in bone mineral loss and increases the risk of skeletal frailty and fracturing" Start prevention early! Peak bone mass reached attained between ages 30 and 35 Most important time for increasing bone mass is preadolescence to about age 30 (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Osteoporosis Protective Factors: Exercise Diet Weightbearing activity Especially calcium and vitamin D Assessment Treatment Bone mineral density test No cure, but drug therapies can help treat (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Type 2 Insulindependent; juvenileonset Insufficient insulin production Noninsulindependent; adultonset Body is resistant to insulin or fails to use it properly Linked to obesity; can be treated with lifestyle changes "pregnant women with high blood glucose levels during pregnancy who have had no previous signs of diabetes" (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Gestational Diabetes Epilepsy "Chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizures" "General term for more than 20 different types of seizure disorders" Requires special consideration in terms of birth control, conception, and pregnancy Best for women with epilepsy to plan pregnancy with the advice of medical professionals (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Arthritis "inflammatory condition of the joints, characterized by swelling, pain, and/or difficulty moving that persists for more than 2 weeks." Affects about 43 million women in the U.S. (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis Degenerative joint disease Breakdown of the tissue that allows joints to move freely Most common form of arthritis Involves inflammation in the lining of the joints and/or other internal organs 23 times more frequent in women Variety of treatments used (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Systemic Lupus Erythematosis (SLE) Most common type of lupus "recognized by the red, butterflyshaped rash found across the bridge of the nose and cheeks." Common symptoms (see FYI box on pg. 401) Treatment is very helpful (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Multiple Sclerosis "a chronic, debilitating disease that affects the central nervous system" Results in disruption of normal conduction of electrical impulses of the CNS 23 times more likely for women than men Variety of possible signs and symptoms (but often unpredictable) (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Multiple Sclerosis Diagnosis can be difficult Pregnancy Treatment new options being studied no adverse effects for pregnant women or their babies BUT women should be careful to consider the side effects her medications could have on the fetus (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Alzheimer's Disease "Most common form of dementia" "causes a gradual, progressive loss of brain cells" Characteristics: Confusion Progressive memory loss Behavioral disturbances Loss of language skills Decreased ability to perform routine tasks (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Alzheimer's Disease Primary risk factor is increasing age Warning Signs: Memory loss that affects job performance & daily living Difficulty performing familiar tasks Problems with language such as forgetting simple words or using words inappropriately Time and space disorientation Poor judgment... (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Alzheimer's Disease Warning Signs (continued) Treatment can not stop, but reduce or Problems with abstract thinking Misplacing items Changes in mood or behavior; rapid mood swings Changes in personality Loss of initiative stabilize symptoms (Kolander, Ballard, & Chandler, 2004) Reference Kolander, C. A., Ballard, D. J., & Chandler, C. K. (2004). Contemporary Women's Health. Willard, OH: WCB/McGrawHill. Robbins, G., Powers, D., & Burgess, S. (2002). A Wellness Way of Life. (5th ed.) New York: McGrawHill. ...
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