Ch8 - Gender.docx - Ch8 Gender Individual fixed effects a...

This preview shows page 1 - 2 out of 5 pages.

Ch8 Gender “Individual fixed effects” – a statistical technique that boils down to comparing an outcome across time as some factor changes Mars and Venus John Gray (pop psychologist) - Writes that men and women don’t even speak the same language, but have distinct biologically and psychically driven styles of communication, feeling, and action - Men and women are different organisms and their biological differences manifest themselves in the ways men and women behave o By nature, men don’t like to express their feelings but instead retreat to their “caves” after a hard day at the office o Women are just more expressive and relational, always communicating about their feelings Feminism – a consciousness-raising movement to get people to understand that gender is an organizing principle of life. The underlying belief is that women and men should be accorded equal opportunities and respect - Feminists tend to be less interested in erasing the differences between men and women than in uncovering the power stakes behind the socially constructed differences between the genders Sex – the biological differences that distinguish males from females Sexuality – desire, sexual preference, and sexual identity and behavior Gender – a social position; the set of social arrangements that are built around normative sex categories Gender is a social construction Sex: A Process in the Making Men vs Women - Behavioral consequences of hormones (Such as premenstrual syndrome) - Relative physical strength of bodies (“regular” versus “girl push-ups) - Brain architecture (subsequent rational or irrational action) - Chromosomes (XX or XY) We think of sex as an either/or binary – either male or female - But there are some peculiar exceptions and blurred lines that have led sociologists to view this model of natural sex as more of an ideal than an absolute “The birth of a child with ambiguous genitalia constitutes a social emergency” - Doctors are advised to examine external genitalia “to determine the degree of masculinization” Sexed Bodies in the Premodern World Ancient Greeks, in the old one-sex way of thinking, there was only one body (a male body) and the female body was regarded as its inversion – that is, as a male body whose parts were flipped inside rather than hanging on the outside Contemporary Concepts of Sex and the Paradoxes of Gender Essentialism – a line of thought that explains social phenomena in terms of natural ones The hall marks of essentialism are fixity, lack of history, absolutism, and biological determinism – meaning that what you do in the social world should be a direct result of who you are in the natural world Gender: What Does It Take to Be a Woman (or a Man)?

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture