Ch12 - Family.docx - CH12 Family Family Forms and Changes...

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CH12: Family Family Forms and Changes Endogamy – marriage to someone within one’s social group - To some extent, we all practice endogamy – that is, on some level people tend to hook up with similar people, because it makes for easier relations if you and your partner share a social group Exogamy – marriage to someone outside one’s social group - Total exogamy – when people from completely different social categories get together – is rare Monogamy – the practice of having only one sexual partner or spouse at a time Polygamy – the practice of having more than one sexual partner or spouse at a time Polyandry – the practice of having multiple husbands simultaneously Polygyny – the practice of having multiple wives simultaneously - The most common form of polygamy, practiced in many contemporary Islamic and African cultures Malinowski and the Traditional Family Nuclear Family – familiar form consisting of a father, a mother, and their children Mandurucu men and women live in separate houses at different ends of their village; they eat separate meals; they sleep apart. They only meet up with each other to have sex The Family in the Western World Today Extended Family – kin networks that extent outside of beyond the nuclear family - Families with no children also exist (for instance, couples that become “empty nesters” after their children move out), as do two-wage-earner families (dual-income families), single-parent families, blended stepfamilies, and adopted families, to name just a few possibilities Today, only one-fifth of American households consist of a married couple with their own children, and 61 percent of households have only one or two people in them Cohabitation – living together in an intimate relationship without formal legal or religious sanctioning It’s the commonsense notion that living together provides a sample of what married life is like and will inform and improve the couple’s future marriage On the opposite side of the debate, conservative supporters of “family values” point to studies showing a higher divorce rate among couples who cohabit before marriage than those who don’t Conservative Christian counselors advise that “living in sin” sets up a rockier road for a marriage, but the actual reason for the higher divorce rate probably has to do more with selection bias: Most people who cohabit are also the kind of individuals who are more likely to flout social conventions and therefore divorce anyway Keeping It in the Family: The Historical Divide between Public and Private Early Modern Families Kinship networks – string of relationships between people related by blood and co-residence (that is, marriage) - Preindustrial communities didn’t have huge savings banks, insurance companies, payday lenders, or government agencies to help in hard times; that was the role of family - Communities cooperated in a noncash economy, using a barter system to swap goods. There was no significant

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