Lesson 5: Trust ●Propaganda must not only be believable it must be believed to be true ●Credible means something worthy to be believed ●Trust originally Implies comfort and consolation and is present in the lived effects of propagandaCommentaries on the reading:Chapter 5: Advertising & PR Ethics Marlin rightly asserts in his first paragraph that the majority of the world’s peoples understand propaganda as public relations or advertising. Melanie Schaffer had the same observation when she spoke in Lesson 3. While not wanting to over‐generalize, I think it is demonstrable that the narrow sense of propaganda as something the enemy does, or as something completely fabricated, is primarily found in Western, English‐speaking countries. The previous reading on the History of Propaganda lends weight to this assertion. Etymology is the study of the original meanings of words. In his next paragraph Marlinturns to the etymology of the word “advertising,” which stems from the original Latin root word “advertere,” meaning “to notice.” Many of us equate advertising with propaganda. But as you shall see in the course, propaganda is far less fleeting than any advertisement and is more deeply entrenched in one’s culture and belief system. One might say that propaganda is “extreme advertising,” or “extreme persuasion,” being far more pervasive and continuous in comparison with advertising. For example, the Dependency Effect, which Marlin describes as creating wants rather than satisfying wants, may fall within the category of manipulating people but is not propaganda, in my view, because such advertising has little or no “staying power” when it comes to a commitment to people’s commitment. The passage on pages 191/192 discussing an advertisement which was felt to disparage certain religious beliefs includes the phrase “although possibly unintentionally.” What appears as a passing comment is in fact essential to understanding how propaganda works. The disparaging message may well have been unintended. But the effect on some viewers was nonetheless real. With propaganda onehas to start with the effects understood by people, by the target audience. I call this “lived effects.” The intention of the propagandist takes second place to effect. This is most evident when propaganda is unsuccessful as we shall see in Lesson 8 TARGET. As with advertising, weoften assume that Public Relations is propaganda. Fundamentally, Public Relations is meant to affect how you think about an event or an organization. PR does not necessarily ask us to act on its message; only to think about it, perhaps change our minds. PR often acts as “damage control” as well. Propaganda, on the other hand, always ends in some type of action. Marlin mentions that underlying all Public Relations pronouncements is the question of ethics.