Lesson 4: ●Teachers commentary on the readings: (Chapter 2: History of Propaganda)-Marlin’s very first sentence in the section on Athens is worthy of emphasis-. He writes: The ancient Greek tyrant Pisistratus (sixth century) pioneered two powerful techniques for influencing public opinion. The first, as described by Herodotus, was what today would be called “victim hegemony”—the description of oneself for one’s group as the victim of unjust behaviour on the part of others so as to gain public support and, hence, power.-I can’t think of any more cogent example of the value of knowing history than these two sentences when it comes to identifying current examples of propaganda which beset us●“Victim hegemony” Even if history is “written by the victors,” an abiding knowledge of history is essential in discerning the propaganda we currently face if for no other reason than to realize that what we are facing today is not new; we humans have been down this road countless times. In knowing this, we can then properly direct our energies to counteract propaganda. -To return to Marlin’s opening thought, propaganda still exists even if a group sees itself as ‘victim,” and fights to support this view. In this case the propaganda would be internally directed to the group itself based upon their past experience. “Victim hegemony,” especially via compelling images of suffering at the hands of another group, is an extremely effective propaganda tool to convince people outside one’s group of the righteousness of one’s cause. ●The French Revolution, it can be argued, introduced to us modern propaganda techniques which have flourished in the Twentieth Century. On page 49 Marlin makes an especially cogent assertion regarding the roots, in late 18th century France, of the propaganda we face today: “In the middle of these upheavals, individuals felt themselves lost. They had to proceed rapidly to changes and adaptations so fundamental that they could not produce them alone. They needed guides, new values, and orientations. Propaganda allowed a person to recognize himself or herself and to actamid all these great changes.”●We should underscore Marlin’s view that education, at this time, was not meant to be objective but to form a citizenry who would be useful to their country. This still rings true across most societies today but, as Marlin observes, this approach to education propaganda.●The British were instrumental in developing modern propaganda techniques during World War One (1914 – 1918). Ten years later the Germans emulated the principles of propaganda which the British had developed. From the mid‐1930s to the end of World War II, the Germans, as Marlin points out, perfected the technique of propaganda in all its forms.