Cog Chapter 4 Attention.pdf - Attention The most valuable...

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Attention“The most valuable commodity of the 21stCentury will be undivided attention”-Phil Cooke
Attention and PerceptionnInattentional Blindness:nFailure to consciously perceive items or events in plain viewne.g. videos from Ch.3 notes (inattentional blindness)§Most people are paying attention to basketball passes, and fail to recognize the “extra player”
Attention and PerceptionnChange Blindness:nDifficulty in perceiving large changes in similar, but slightly different, scenesn“Flicker” tests§Two similar images are presented, with a verybrief flicker between them; task is to identify the difference…
Change BlindnessnChange Blindness:nDifficulty in perceiving large changes in similar, but slightly different, scenesn“Flicker” tests§Two similar images are presented, with a verybrief flicker between them; task is to identify the difference…§Much easier without the flicker (next slide)
Change BlindnessnChange Blindness:nDifficulty in perceiving large changes in similar, but slightly different, scenesn“Flicker” tests§Two similar images are presented, with a verybrief flicker between them; task is to identify the difference…§Much easier without the flickernSlow-Change TestsnContinuity Errors§e.g. Ocean’s 11, Terminator 3, Commando
Attention is LimitednInattentional Blindness and Change Blindness:nBoth involve a failure to register unattended stimuli in consciousnessnLargely due to the fact that attention is limitednCognitive ResourcesnIdea that we have a limited amount of “brain power” that we can use at any given timenMust choosewhat to focus our limited resources onnSome things are easy (walking) and require little “brain power” àcalled Low-load tasksnSome things are much harder (mental trigonometry) and require much more brain power àHigh-load tasks
SELECTIVE ATTENTIONAttention captureEndogenous vs. Exogenous AttentionDichotic listening (Shadowing)“Early” Selection vs. “Late” Selection modelsStroop TaskVisual search tasks
Attention CapturenAttention capturenDiversion of attention by a stimulus so powerful that it compelsus to notice it, even when attention is focused elsewherenKind of the opposite of inattentional blindnessnOften stimuli of evolutionary importancenLoud noisesnThreatening stimuli§G.W. Bush under (shoe) attack!nFaces, bodies§Angry > Smiling§Super-sexy
Attention CapturenInattentional Blindness vs. Attention capturenShow participants asymmetric crossed lines§Ask them to indicate which arm is longest§Every 4thtrial, somethingappears in one of the quadrants
Attention CapturenResults:§Most participants don’t even notice the black shape§About 15% notice a circle§Those that did notice couldn’t tell you what shape it was§Inattentional blindness§But, if the circle àcartoon smiley face, 80% notice!!

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