Anthropology 3 no review

Anthropology 3 no review - Cherry Cultural Universals...

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Cherry – Cultural Universals Brenna Shelander Cultural Universals Universals These are things that people do no matter where they are Shared by all Homo sapiens They include: o Environment and ecology People interact with their environment in different ways o Subsistence How do people exist? How do they eat, drink, etc. o Demography o Technology Everyone has a different toolkit o Economy They way people exchange goods and services o Social Organization Small family grouping or large family grouping o Religion This is the framework we will use to explore o Political organization
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o Case studies from SD and Culture Sketches o Case studies in globalization section Physical Environment and Ecology All people must eat o What you eat depends on what is available to you o Humans have adapted to all the environments on the planet o Therefore their choices of food acquisition will be highly variable Ecology: is the study of organisms in relation to their environment o Various species will occupy different environmental niches (areas) and  their subsistence activities will be determined by that environment A key concept in ecology is Biome o An area distinguished by a particular climate and certain types of  plants and animals Cultural Ecology classifies subsistence into: Foragers or Hunter-Gatherers o The original human patter; goes back to hominids; basically eat  whatever you can find Horticulturalists o Modification of foraging where certain crops are cultivated on a limited  basis; for example yams among certain Pacific societies Pastoralists o Focus on domesticated animals (primarily goats or sheep) Agriculturalists o Rely heavily on farming certain staple crops (corn, rice, wheat) These patterns that are spread around the world and seem to correlate to  biomes
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Demographics The study of population o Look at fertility, mortality, birth rates, migration Derives from the work of Malthus on carrying capacity Basically what factors affect the population of various societies o Do birth rates exceed death rates? o Are many people moving to other areas? o What is the relationship of population density (how many people per  unit) to other cultural factors such as religion or warfare How dense does population have to be before people start migrating from it Technology Technology is the fundamental way humans achieve adaptation o Refers to all created objects and processes that effect subsistence or  control the environment o Remember material culture? Often directly related to subsistence quest.
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This note was uploaded on 03/26/2008 for the course ANTH 105 taught by Professor 504 during the Fall '07 term at Texas A&M.

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Anthropology 3 no review - Cherry Cultural Universals...

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