Anthropology 4 - Anthropology 4 Chiefdoms Brenna Shelander...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Anthropology 4 Brenna Shelander Chiefdoms A political economy that organizes large groups of people (larger than tribes  or bands) into a single system under the leadership of hierarchical leaders  (chiefs) Chiefs control resources, the economy and production Chiefdoms are NOT egalitarian Intermediate between tribes and states Chiefdoms very widespread: Found historically (to about 12,000 years ago) All over the world (except Australia) Very few survive today; mostly an archaeological problem Can be centralized or decentralized Chiefdoms can have many different subsistence systems But tend to be found most commonly in intensive horticulture areas: o Utilize fertilizer, irrigation and more tools to intensively farm the land o Polynesia is a good example Key Question How and why did chiefdoms develop? o Regional symbiosis: Interdependency on others to augment your resources (regional  ecological model) Over time, leaders emerge capable of controlling the access  and exchange of resources, thereby enabling solidification of  political control over wide area
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Still not certain Food Storage is critical As production increases, surplus is created. Without a means to store this surplus, chiefs could not gain power By accumulating surplus (“wealth”) chiefs are able to make deals, provide  assistance, and gain prestige Social Stratification This differential access to and control of surplus makes chiefdoms “stratified”  societies Chiefs are “richer” More goods, bigger houses, nicer things, clear indications of rank  (headdresses) Territoriality and ownership much more important in chiefdoms (still tied to  descent groups) Reciprocity is key component of chiefdoms Keeping goods and surplus flowing through the system is a major part of  chiefs duties There are two types of exchange networks in chiefdoms: o Reciprocal exchange: Balanced reciprocity (exchanges in kind to solidify alliances or  to gain goods) can be barter Ex: Kula Ring “I give you something then somewhere down the line I  get something back” Kula Trade ring engaged in by Trobirand Islanders (remember Malinowski?) Exchange of armbands and bracelets Very formalized
Image of page 2
Important for prestige of chiefs May not be “balanced” (competition) Second Kind: Redistributional exchanges: o This is the exchange of surplus and goods throughout the chiefdom in  order to ensure population stability and to solidify chiefs power Ex: potlatch Potlatch Chinook word: “giveaway”
Image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern