Anatomy Vital Signs Project.pdf - Rincon PURPOSE The activities within the human body constantly change with the pass of time this may be due to several

Anatomy Vital Signs Project.pdf - Rincon PURPOSE The...

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Unformatted text preview: Rincon PURPOSE The activities within the human body constantly change with the pass of time, this may be due to several variables such as health, emotions, or metabolism itself. Therefore it is important to know the changes of this activities to determine if the body is acting either correctly or wrongly. Vital signs such as pulse, blood pressure, respiration, and temperature are very helpful to assess the proper functioning of the body. By learning how to take vital signs any person is able to track and recognize the health, thus determine if any other person or himself is requiring or should attend to a healthcare professional. BACKGROUND The vital signs are the measurements of the most basic body functions. This measures include heart rate, temperature, blood pressure, and respiration rate. Knowing the regular values and variations of these four features a person is able to assess the well functioning of the human body. The heart rate is the number of times the heart beats in one minute; the normal pulse for healthy adults ranges from 60 to 100 beats per minute. It can be taken in several spots such as wrist, elbow, and neck. Sometimes heart rate can change and this can be due to several factors; for example, women tend to have a faster pulse than men while athletes in general tend to have a slower heart rate than the average (1), moreover other factors can include air temperature, body position, emotions, body size, and medication (2). Body temperature measurements can be taken by inserting a thermometer orally (mouth), rectally (anus), axillary (armpit), by ear, or by skin (1). A normal temperature range can go from from 97°F (36.1°C) to 99°F (37.2°C). However, it can vary because of the age, activity, and time of the day; a temperature over 100.4°F (38°C) can indicate signs of fever (3). Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the artery walls during contraction and relaxation of the heart; this measure is taken with a tool known as sphygmomanometer. The blood pressure is highest when your heart beats, pumping the blood; this is called systolic pressure. When the heart is at rest, between beats, your blood pressure falls; this is called diastolic pressure (3). Normal blood pressure is systolic of less than 120 and diastolic of less than 80, which is read as 120/80. Elevated blood pressure is systolic of 120 to 129 and diastolic less than 80 (1). High blood pressure usually has no symptoms, but it can cause serious problems such as stroke, heart failure, heart attack and kidney failure (3). The respiration rate is the number of breaths that a person takes in one minute. In adults, normal respiration rates may vary from 12 to 20 breaths per minute or BPM; a respiration rate under 12 or over 25 is considered abnormal. Yet there are conditions that can change the respiration rate such as asthma, anxiety, pneumonia, congestive heart failure, lung disease, or use of narcotics (4). ANALYSIS The vitals were taken a total of 15 times; they started on September 9th 2017, and end on February 23rd 2018. Within these dates there were variations. For example, on the fifth week (11/2/2017) the vitals were taken after intense aerobic exercise, therefore some values such as pulse and blood pressure were higher than usual. Moreover, other variations were recorded during each session of vitals such as breakfast/lunch, caffeine, and medication. The presence of breakfast/lunch was constant and present during every session of vitals, therefore it did not affect significatively any of the signs taken. Caffeine was absent in 3 out of 15 sessions; (11/13/17),(12/1/17), (12/15/17), yet there was not any significant change in any of the signs, even if caffeine was or not consumed. Medication was present in 3 out of 15 sessions; (9/8/17), (9/15/17), (1/8/18). In the three of them the medication was the same (acetaminophen, dextromethorphan, doxylamine), however in neither of these sessions was a significant change in any of the vital signs. Other variable that was not included in the information chart yet it did have an impact over some of the vital signs was the physical activity. From sessions 1 to 8 the physical activity was between low and medium, and from sessions 9 to 15 the physical activity got higher. This created a change in pulse, from sessions 1 to 8 the mean of the pulse was 70, on the other hand, from sessions 9 to 15 the mean of the pulse went down to 65. PROCEDURE Rincon ● ● Pulse : ○ Materials: ■ Watch or chronometer. ○ Radial Pulse: 1. In order to take the radial pulse, the person will be placing his forearm upwards. 2. The other hand will place two fingertips gently in the groove on the forearm, down from the fold of the wrist and about an inch along from the base of the thumb. 3. If the position is right the person should feel the pulsation. 4. By using a watch or chronometer, it is necessary to count the times this pulsation is felt in 60 seconds. 5. The result is known as beats per minute and this indicates the radial pulse. ○ Carotid Pulse: 1. In order to take the carotid pulse, the person will be placing both index and middle finger on the neck to the side of the windpipe (trachea). 2. If the position is right the person should feel the pulsation. 3. By using a watch or chronometer, it is necessary to count the times this pulsation is felt in 60 seconds. 4. The result is known as beats per minute and this indicates the carotid pulse. ○ Safety tips: ■ Each pulse should be taken at least three times in order to get an average, therefore a more accurate result. ■ Do not apply high pressure with fingers over the zone where the pulse is being taken. ■ In adults, if the pulse is not between the range of 60­100 beats per minute the person should contact a healthcare professional. Blood Pressure : ○ Materials : ■ Aneroid sphygmomanometer. ■ Stethoscope. ○ Steps: 1. The subject has to be either seated or supine (if seated the elbow should be flexed and at the level of the heart). 2. Wrap the cuff around the upper arm with the cuff's lower edge one inch above the antecubital fossa. 3. Lightly press the stethoscope's bell over the brachial artery just below the cuff's edge. 4. Inflate the cuff until reaching 180 mm/Hg. Then release air at a rate of 3 mm/sec. 5. Listen to the stethoscope and watch the sphygmomanometer at the same time. 6. The first knocking sound is the subjects systolic pressure; the last knocking sound is the diastolic pressure e.g. (120/80). ○ Safety tips : ■ If the subject is anxious, wait a few minutes before taking the pressure. ■ Aneroid and digital manometers may require periodic calibration. ■ Don't place the cuff over clothing. ■ A blood pressure of 180/120 mmHg requires immediate attention. ■ If the subject’s blood pressure is slightly higher than normal, a second measure should be taken within an interval of a few minutes. ● Temperature : Rincon ○ Materials : ■ Digital thermometer ○ Steps: 1. Insert the thermometer inside the mouth, place the metal ending under the tongue. 2. Hold the thermometer in the same spot for about 40 seconds 3. Digital thermometers usually make a bip sound, this means that the temperature has been already taken and is ready to be read. ○ Safety tips : ■ Use a sleeve prior inserting the thermometer to keep it clean; if not, clean it with alcohol after each use. ■ Do not eat or drink anything for at least 5 minutes before starting the process of measuring. ■ Call your health provider if you have a temperature of 100.4° F (38° C) or higher. ■ Do not attempt to chew the instrument. ● Respiration: ○ Materials: ■ Watch or chronometer. ○ Steps: ■ Record the number of times of a full respiration (both inhalation and exhalation) within a range of 60 seconds. ■ The value obtained is known as respiration per minute (BPM). ○ Safety tips: ■ The values of this vital sign may vary after exercising. TEMPERATURE Week Date F° 1 9/8/2017 98.9 2 9/15/2017 98.7 3 10/2/2017 98.9 4 10/27/2017 97.4 5 11/2/2017 97 6 11/13/2017 98.1 7 12/1/2017 98.8 8 12/15/2017 97.8 9 1/8/2018 98.8 10 1/19/2018 97.8 11 1/23/2018 97.3 12 2/1/2018 96.8 13 2/9/2018 96.7 14 2/16/2018 97.2 15 2/23/2018 96.4 Rincon RESPIRATION Week Date BPM 1 9/8/2017 18 2 9/15/2017 19 3 10/2/2017 16 4 10/27/2017 17 5 11/2/2017 18 6 11/13/2017 17 7 12/1/2017 18 8 12/15/2017 17 9 1/8/2018 20 10 1/19/2018 16 11 1/23/2018 16 12 2/1/2018 17 13 2/9/2018 17 14 2/16/2018 16 15 2/23/2018 16 Rincon PULSE Carotid Carotid Carotid Radial Radial Radial Manual Electronic Average Manual Electronic Average (bpm) (bpm) (bpm) (bpm) (bpm) (bpm) Week Date 1 9/8/2017 80 79 79.5 72 79 75.5 2 9/15/2017 70 69 69.5 71 69 70 3 10/2/2017 69 64 66.5 66 64 65 4 10/27/2017 72 67 69.5 71 67 69 5 11/2/2017 95 143 119 92 143 117.5 6 11/13/2017 74 62 68 68 62 65 7 12/1/2017 75 80 77.5 77 80 78.5 8 12/15/2017 75 72 73.5 69 72 70.5 9 1/8/2018 83 68 75.5 80 68 74 10 1/19/2018 68 77 72.5 69 77 73 11 1/23/2018 64 61 62.5 62 61 61.5 12 2/1/2018 66 68 67 64 68 66 13 2/9/2018 61 58 59.5 60 58 59 14 2/16/2018 63 65 64 64 65 64.5 15 2/23/2018 62 61 61.5 66 61 63.5 Rincon BLOOD PRESSURE Systolic Systolic Systolic Manual Electronic Average (mm/Hg) (mm/Hg) (mm/Hg) Diastolic Manual (mm/Hg) Diastolic Diastolic Electronic Average (mm/Hg) (mm/Hg) Week Date 1 9/8/2017 120 108 114 75 72 73.5 2 9/15/2017 120 108 114 74 66 70 3 10/2/2017 120 113 116.5 80 64 72 4 10/27/2017 120 106 113 80 62 71 124 124 65 65 5 11/2/2017 6 11/13/2017 108 106 107 69 65 67 7 12/1/2017 135 106 120.5 85 54 69.5 8 12/15/2017 120 95 107.5 81 61 71 9 1/8/2018 117 97 107 77 60 68.5 10 1/19/2018 110 96 103 70 64 67 11 1/23/2018 118 107 112.5 80 67 73.5 12 2/1/2018 110 109 109.5 64 59 61.5 13 2/9/2018 110 106 108 70 66 68 14 2/16/2018 120 103 111.5 75 59 67 15 2/23/2018 110 106 108 70 66 68 Rincon MEAN FOR VITALS: David ­ USA Healthy Adult David Healthy adult Respiration 17.06 BPM 16 BPM Temperature 97.77 F° 97.6 F° Pulse (electronic) 72.93 bpm 80 bpm Blood Pressure Systolic (electronic) 106 mmHg 120 mmHg Blood Pressure Diastolic (electronic) 63 mmHg 80 mmHg MODE FOR VITALS: David David Respiration 16; 17 BPM Temperature 98.9 F°; 98.8 F°; 97.8 F° Pulse (electronic) 68 bpm; 61 bpm Blood Pressure Systolic (electronic) 106 mmHg Blood Pressure Diastolic (electronic) 66 mmHg Rincon RANGE FOR VITALS: David ­ USA Healthy Adult David USA Healthy Adult Respiration 20 ­ 16 BPM 12 ­ 30 BPM Temperature 98.9 ­ 97 F° 98.0 ­ 98.6 F° Pulse (electronic) 143 ­ 58 bpm 100 ­ 60 Bpm Blood Pressure Systolic (electronic) 124 ­ 95 mmHg 140 ­ 95 mmHg Blood Pressure Diastolic (electronic) 72 ­ 54 mmHg 90 ­ 60 mmHg CONCLUSION From the start date until the last vitals of the year 2017 my lifestyle wasn’t very active; I worked out seldom and did not include cardiovascular exercises in my routine. However, everything changed in 2018; my lifestyle became more active and my diet got healthier. A good dietary advice oriented to my age group would be: avoid eating sugars and processed food. Try to include fruits and vegetables in your diet, and do not exceed the amount of calories that you need. A good advice regarding exercise would be: try to make at least 30 minutes of cardiovascular exercise per day. Also include weight lifting programs in your work out. And if you do not like to do any of these, try to practice any sport so you can start having a more active lifestyle and therefore a more healthy body. While doing this PBL I learned several things regarding the importance of the vital signs for the medical field. I learned more in dept the concepts of each of the vital. I learn the mistakes that one can commit while taking vitals. I learned the normal ranges of vitals in people of my age group and older than me. I learned about abnormalities that can cause variations in vital signs. I learned that there is some variables that can and can’t change the values of the vital signs. Moreover, I also learned some other things out of the topic. I learned how to properly use Google Sheets and create graphs, I also learned a couple of concepts used in other sciences such as statistics. Overall it is clear that knowing the regular values and variations of these four features a person is able to assess the well functioning of the human body. A health care professional can determine what protocols and procedures should be applied on specific people, or even if a person needs immediate help. Doctors can save lives if they detect abnormalities within these vital signs. WORKS CITED 1. All About Heart Rate (Pulse), ­About­ Heart­Rate­Pulse_UCM_438850_Article.jsp?appName=WebApp#.Ws6iGujwbrc. 2. “Blood Pressure Measurement.” Practical Clinical Skills, ­pressure­measurement. 3. “Body Temperature Norms.” MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia, medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001982.htm. 4. “How To Use A Thermometer To Take Your Temperature.” Cleveland Clinic, my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/9959­thermometers­how­to­take­your­temperature. 5. “Normal Vital Signs .” Normal Vital Signs: Normal Vital Signs, 18 Sept. 2015, emedicine.medscape.com/article/2172054­overview. 6. “Vital Signs.” Cleveland Clinic, my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/10881­vital­signs. 7. “Vital Signs 101.” Johns Hopkins Medicine Health Library, pulse_rate_respiration_rate_blood_pressure_85,P00866. ...
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