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Unformatted text preview: Developmental Theories A perspective and set of assumptions about development A way of organizing info, concepts, & findings A set of predictions about development that can be tested & modified A model to provide a rational basis for intervention What is a Developmental Theory? Major Groups of Developmental Theories Human behavior is governed by internal unconscious motives and drives Development occurs in discontinuous stages Both nature (innate drives) and nurture (early experiences in life) are important Exs. Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson's theories Psychodynamic Theories Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Theory Basic Characteristics Proposes 8 stages of personality development Socially focused We develop from successful resolution of 8 conflicts throughout life Conflicts arise because of our attempts to balance our own needs with those of society At each stage we learn new skills & attitudes to help us fit in with society Erikson's Psychosocial Stages Trust vs. Mistrust (yr. 1) Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt (23) Initiative vs. Guilt (36) Industry vs. Inferiority (612) Identity vs. Role confusion (1218) Intimacy vs. Isolation (young adult) Generativity vs. Stagnation (midlife) Integrity vs. Despair (senior yrs) Major Group: Learning Theories Person consists of connections between stimulus inputs (hearing a direction), behavioral responses (following it), & consequences (reward/punish) Learning is continuous and gradual Emphasizes nurture (role of environment) Exs. Behaviorism (Skinner) & Cognitive Social Learning Theory (Bandura) Development is due to: Continuous, reciprocal interactions between person & environment Observational Learning (OL) Cognitive Activity Bandura's Cognitive Social Learning Theory We anticipate consequences We develop selfefficacy We reinforce ourselves w/mental praise or criticism Innate programmed psychological structures evolve & determine how a child understands the world Dev. occurs in discontinuous stages Nature (unfolding of structures) and nurture (a stimulating environment) are emphasized Exs. Jean Piaget's cognitive development theory Major Group: Cognitive Developmental Theories Basic Characteristics Jean Piaget's Cognitive Developmental Theory A stage theory focused on processes of developing cognitive reasoning & problemsolving abilities Developing person is an active explorer Development result of acquiring increasingly complex cognitive schema Schema are patterns of action and thought Schema develop as a result of interactions of child with the environment Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Dev. Person develops within a series of interacting systems (parents, school, culture) Person's development is a continuous and gradual growth Nature (personality characteristics) and nurture (family, neighborhood, govt. policies) constantly interact Ex. Urie Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems theory Major Group: Ecological Systems Theory Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems ...
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- Spring '08