Lecture 11.pdf - Measures of Association HSC 4501 Lecture...

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Measures of AssociationHSC 4501Lecture 11Section 0007
EpidemiologyDescriptiveAnalyticalTypes:Case ReportsCase SeriesCross-SectionalEcological*Descrip)ve studies are never experimental, but analy)c studies may or may not beexperimental.**Which are experimental and observational?Types:Case-Control StudiesCohort StudiesRandomized Controlled TrialsSystematic ReviewsQuasi-Interventional StudiesEcologicalRecap
RecapRecall our analytic study designs all end up will 4 groups once the study is completed…Case-Control StudyRandomized Controlled TrialsCohort Study
Recap
Case-control studies are also used to address questions of etiology.
RecapThe 2x2 table:The 4 groups from analy7c research studies are usually presented in a 2x2 table formatThese people are exposedand have the diseaseThese people are exposedbut do not have the diseaseThese people have thedisease but were neverexposedThese people do not havethe disease and were neverexposedHave ExposureDo Not HaveExposureHave DiseaseDo not Have Disease
Objectives 11.1 At the end of the lecture student will be able to: Describe/review the concept of absolute risk.Discuss and compare the relative risk as measures of association between an exposure and a disease.Discuss and compare odds ratio as measures of association between an exposure and a disease.
Absolute Risk cont.For example, a woman who contracts rubella in the first trimester of pregnancy and asks her physician, “What is the risk that my child will be malformed?” is given a certain number as an answer. On the basis of this information, she may decide to abort her pregnancy. Note: She is not explicitly given comparative data, but an implicit comparison is generally being made: The woman is wondering not only what her risk is, but she is wondering how that risk compares with what it would have been had she not contracted rubella.

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