Postmodernism & Deconstructivism - Postmodernism Deconstructivism 1960 Present Origin Postmodern architecture emerged in the 1960s as a reaction

Postmodernism & Deconstructivism - Postmodernism...

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Unformatted text preview: Postmodernism & Deconstructivism 1960- Present Origin Postmodern architecture emerged in the 1960s as a reaction against the perceived shortcomings of modern architecture, particularly its rigid doctrines, its uniformity, its lack of ornament, and its habit of ignoring the history and culture of the cities where it appeared. In place of the modernist doctrines of simplicity as expressed by Mies in his famous "less is more;" and functionality, "form follows function", postmodernism, in the words Robert Venturi, offered complexity and contradiction. Origin In 1966, Robert Venturi formalized the movement in his book, Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture. He summarized the kind of architecture he wanted to see replace modernism: I welcome the problems and exploit the uncertainties. I like elements which are hybrid rather than "pure", compromising rather than "clean", accommodating rather than excluding. I am for messy vitality over obvious unity. I prefer "both-and" to "either-or", black and white, and sometimes gray, to black or white. Complexity and Contradiction Postmodern buildings had curved forms, decorative elements, asymmetry, bright colors, and features often borrowed from earlier periods. Colors and textures unrelated to the structure or function of the building were used. The Neue Staatsgalerie by James Stirling in Stuttgart, Germany (1977-84). Complexity and Contradiction It borrowed freely from classical architecture, rococo, neoclassical architecture, the Viennese secession, the British arts and crafts movement, the German Jugendstil. Postmodern buildings often combined astonishing new forms and features with seemingly contradictory elements of classicism. The Neue Staatsgalerie by James Stirling in Stuttgart, Germany (1977-84). Fragmentation Postmodern architecture often breaks large buildings into several different structures and forms, sometimes representing different functions of those parts of the building. With the use of different materials and styles, a single building can appear like a small town or village. Stadtisches Museum by Hans Hollein in Munich (1972–74). Asymmetrical and Oblique Forms Postmodernist compositions are rarely symmetrical and orderly. Oblique buildings which lean, and seem about to fall over are common. In 1968 the French architect Claude Parent designed a church, Sainte-Bernadette in Nevers, France, in the form of a block of concrete leaning to one side. Colour Color is an important element in many postmodern buildings, to give the facades variety and personality sometimes colored glass is used, or ceramic tiles, or stone. The buildings of Mexican architect Luis Barragan offer bright sunlight colors that give life to the forms. Camp Humor It was an ironic humor which adored exaggeration, and things which were not what they seemed. The gateway of the building is in the form of an enormous pair of binoculars; cars enter the garage passing under the binoculars. Serves a commercial purpose. Binoculars Building in Venice Low Culture The term "high culture" is often used by art critics when trying to distinguish the "high culture" of painting and fine arts, from the "low" pop- culture of magazines, television and other mass-made commodities. Modernists and other influential supporters like Clement Greenberg (1909-94), considered low culture to be inferior to high culture. Pop- artists and others went even further in their attempts to democratize art, by printing their "art" on mugs, paper bags and T-shirts. 3 Principles of Postmodernist Art Art can be made from anything. Instant meaning. The idea matters more than the work of art itself. Deconstructivism Deconstructivism is a movement of postmodern architecture which appeared in the 1980s, which gives the impression of the fragmentation of the constructed building. It often manipulates the structure's surface skin and creates by non-rectilinear shapes which appear to distort and dislocate elements of architecture. The finished visual appearance is characterized by unpredictability, controlled chaos and absence of harmony, continuity, or symmetry. Deconstructivism It deliberately juxtaposes elements that appear to contradict each other in order to challenge traditional ideas of harmony and continuity - even stability! However, it is really no more than a series of postmodernist "impulses" rather than a coherent movement, or a consistent design style. It aims to perplex the visitor, making the stay in the space an experience worth remembering. Lawrence Weiner (Artist) The idea becomes a machine that makes the art. Philosophy Weiner realized that the essence of a work is textual and not physical. This led him to the following formulation, first published in 1968, which continues to outline his conceptual approach to artmaking: (1)The artist may construct the piece. (2) The piece may be fabricated. (3) The piece need not be built. Each being equal and consistent with the intent of artist, the decision as to condition rests with the receiver upon the occasion of receivership. Over and Over, Guggenheim Museum Conceptual Art by Lawrence Weiner at the Guggenheim Museum. Thought of repetition. Over and Over is labelled as postmodern art because it is expressly involved in deconstruction of what makes a work of art, "art". Frank Gehry (Architect) Architecture is an art. Philosophy Gehry views what's around us as modernist, box-like buildings. He approaches architecture through a personal articulation of ideas. This personal language reflects his design philosophy related to art, humanity, and time. He manipulates the constraints of the project, then expresses his creation. He approaches each building as a sculptural object, each piece of architecture as a painting. His inspirations come from art and his role models are artists. Philosophy For Gehry, a big problem of modernism is the loss of a sense of humanity. He believes that people are the most important thing in architecture. Thus, Gehry makes expressive buildings to humanize architecture, enrich the human experience, and create places that people like to be in. Engaging people's feelings is essential which means finding ways to express feelings and emotions in architecture. Philosophy Gehry frees his architecture from the burdens of history. Because, he believes the language of architecture should speak of its time and place. Gehry sees chaos in our time and believes that democracy expresses itself chaotically. Response to Chaos Gehry believes that these 'imperfections' of the modern world should be reflected in architecture, as it does in the arts. For him, buildings should respond to time and our constantly changing world. Architecture should address chaos, express unease, and stimulate unpredictability. To Gehry, chaotic buildings are more poetic. He uses movement as a part of his language. He believes that movement is pervasive in our time and culture, like chaos. Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles Through the use of deconstruction, fragmentation, and metaphors he assembled an inviting space that would serve the community for years to come. The fluidity of the building, welcomes all groups. Summary 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Postmodernism was a late 20’th century movements. It opposed the Modernist preoccupation with purity of form and technique. It aimed to eradicate the divisions between art, popular culture and the mediax. Postmodern artist employed influences from an array of past movements, applying them to modern form. Postmodernist embraced diversity. They rejected the distinction between “high” and “low” art. Ignoring genre boundaries , the movements encourages the mix of ideas, medias and forms to promote parody, humor and irony. ...
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